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[Pages 197-209]

Bukoviner Abroad

Compiled by the editor

Translated by Jerome Silverbush

The lure of distant lands

Even in the times when the Jews of Bukovina enjoyed the full rights of citizens many were drawn to distant lands. Since they were mostly businessmen or craftsmen, during the times of economic depression there was bitter need. Lack of work drove many to emigrate. Often they took advantage of the liberality of the monarchy and sought work in the larger cities, especially in Vienna. Among those who emigrated were the sons of orthodox parents who during the epoch of the Enlightenment (Haskala) felt the need to escape the narrow framework of their lives and seek their luck in the wide world. Many traveled to lands across the ocean from where they seldom returned. Many of these emigrants prospered. In most countries landsmannschaften {groups of emigrants from the same city or country} came into existence and these kept alive the memories of the homeland. There was a lively correspondence between the emigrants and their relatives in Bukovina which continued into the second and third generations. During the catastrophic years from 1933 to 1944, there were many from Bukovina who found refuge in the countries of the Americas.

We went to great lengths to get information from these émigrés on how they built up their new lives abroad but not all of them replied to our requests. The information we did receive follows:

The publisher

Argentina

Bukoviner who sought their happiness abroad starting in the Austrian era, but neither these “old timers” nor the small number of Nazi victims who sought refuge in Argentina had the feeling of solidarity which in other South American countries led to the formation of Bukovina Landsmanschaften. Well known Bukoviner among others are Josef Ebner, the industrialist, Alfredo and Felix Goldschlaeger, L. Luttini (Luttinger), Dr. Marcell Rath, Dr. Lazar Wittner, Nathan Eifermann (born 1901 in Rusnow, Bukovina), presently industrialist in Buenos Aires, Engineer Adolf 9Abraham) Zahler.

Australia

The first Jewish Immigrants came in 1815 from England. They were later followed by Jewish families from Russia and then the Russo-Japanese war, the pogroms in Russia followed by the collapse of the Tsarist empire caused a greater emigration out of Russia as well as out of the part of Poland that belonged to Russia at that time. In 1933 there were 29,000 Jews in Australia. Presently there are approximately 60,000 Jews distributed in all the states of Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, West Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, Queensland and Australian Capital Territory.

As the catastrophe crashed over the Jews of Europe, many Jews out of all the lads of Europe were able to flee to Australia and thus save their lives and a part of their fortunes. This was only possible thanks to the Australian government which at that time was controlled by the Australian Labor Party at whose head stood Minister President Chifley who has since passed away. He as well as his closest associate the Foreign Minister Dr. Evatt, at that time president of the United Nations under whose auspices Israel became an independent state as well as the immigration minister Caldwell must be given credit for the fact that Australia was the first land to open wide its gates to the oppressed.

The years 1938, 1939 ad 1940 brought a number of immigrants, mainly from Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland into the land. First in 1941, while Chifley was in office, began a greater immigration from all the countries of Europe, including Hungary, Romania (altreich) {In 1861 Moldavia and Walachia merged to form the original Romania known as the “Altreich” or “Old Kingdom.”} and also from the two Romanian provinces, Siebenbuergen and Bukovina.

As a consequence of the crimes committed by Antonescu's government in Romania, the setting up of the ghettos and the deportation of the Jews to the death camps in Transnistria the emigration from Romania was cut off. Only after the war could the Romanian Jews think about emigrating. In 1947 came the first emigrants to Australia mainly from Russian occupied North Bukovina. While those who came into the land with some assets in the years 1938-1941 were able to establish small and middle sized businesses and thus establish a foothold, the situation of those who came into the land after 1941 was much more difficult. Among these were the Jews from Bukovina who came into the land without any assets. They had to take jobs as employees or manual laborers.

Since the Australian government didn't recognize diplomas from foreign universities for professions such as lawyer, engineer, etc. and demanded a new multi-year course of study at an Australian university. This class of immigrants had to look for suitable professions. As far as we know, only two medical doctors from Bukovina are practicing their professions.

Presently approximately 85 Jewish families from Bukovina live in Australia's two largest cities, Sydney and Melbourne. The majority are in Melbourne where there is a Jewish center. According to the latest figures from the Statistical Office there 22,000 Jewish residents in Sydney and 27,000 in Melbourne. The rest of the Jewish residents are in the cities Adelaide in South Australia, Ballarat and Geelong in Victoria, Brisbane in Queensland and Hobart in Tasmania.

Because of their vanishingly small numbers, Bukovina Jews don't play a role in commerce or other areas, while the Jews from Russia and Poland belong to decades old landsmanschaften and play a leading role in Jewish cultural life which is not the case with the Jews from Bukovina because of their short time there and their small numbers. They have not created their own landsmanschaften and therefore are not represented by any Jewish organization.

Attempts to create a Bukovina Immigrant organization {in German “Landsmanschaft”} failed. Another attempt to form an organization for Jews from Rumania with a section for Bukovina Jews also wasn't successful.

Never the less, the Bukovina Jews continued to fulfill their responsibilities to the Jewish community. At the yearly appeal for Israel they contributed as much as they could afford while at the same time were aware of their responsibility to the state in which they lived.

They many name changes adopted by Bukovina Jews, for which there was no good reason are regrettable. Still more regrettable are the marriages with people of other religions that children of good Jewish families entered into.{author uses word “Mischehen” which I assume means a mixed marriage.}

We can't conclude without noting the government of the current Minister President, Menzies many Jews were allowed to enter Australia and that the Immigration Minister Downer freely interpreted the immigration laws where the Jews were concerned.

(Contributed by Adolphe Rosenwald)

*

Of the Bukoviner who live in Australia should be mentioned among others: Architect A. Appenzeller; Bruno and Herber tBerel; Milton Blumrich; Z. Brender; Norbert Brenner; Emil Ebner; Alexander Ehrlich; H. Gelber; Alfred Gordey; Isidor Greif; M. Gruenseit; Dr. Norber tHendel; Erika Hessing; Dr. PaulKinston; Dr. H. Krauthammer; Dr. M. Krauthammer; Bernhard Linker; Dr. H. Morgenstern; Dr. Erich Neuberger; Richard Neuton (Nuessenbaum); Kubi Nospreis (Price); Alexander Rettig; Max Rosenstrauch; Adolphe Rosenwald; Dr. Jacob Rubel; K.M. Saltzman; Herman Schaerf; Dr. Julian Spinner; S. Sperling; Leon Spiegel; Simon Stein; J. Surkis; David Teicher; Dr. Otto Walter; Dr. A.Weinreb; J. W.Willner; Dr. H. Wilson.

Belgium and Holland

The Bukoviner in Belgium whose names we know follow; Mr. Max Lodner from Radautz, the president of the Jewish community in Arlon who has been given high decorations by the governments of Belgium and France; the engineer Willi Berle who lives in Brussels, the son of the exporter Samuel Berler; Herbert Heitner, nephew of the similarly named former owner of the Golden Lion in Czernowitz; Gustav Kleinberg and lawyer Dr. Julius Tannenbaum.

In Amsterdam lives the Bukoviner Dr. Noe Koenig; Robert Koenig in Wassenar is similarly a Bukoviner. Osias Lilian, a Finance Office official was a prisoner of war and escaped from Russia and came through Dutch India to Amsterdam where he learned and practiced the optician's trade. He died in 1959. Max Rosenblatt industrialist and owner of a warehouse died in Amsterdam in 1958;his sons Wolf and Oscar are industrialists and Jules studied business at the university of Amsterdam; S. Steinbarg born in Sereth.

Bolivia

The former lawyer Dr. Karl Ludwig Allerhand who has lived since 1939 in LaPaz where at first he was in business and now for many years he has concerned himself with compensation questions . He is an “Old Man” in the Hasmonaea organization (Czernowitz), was in the First World War in Russia and Italy, was a lawyer in Vienna, also vice president of the Ring of Old Men-Organization of the Zionist groups in Austria and the Bukovina Lawyers Club; published a newspaper in the Dachau concentration camp and is today president of the SOPRO, the aid organization, vice president of the Zionist Federation, president of the Arbitration Board of the Jewish community and honorary president of the Maccabee.

Other Bukoviner who live in Bolivia are; the industrialist Leon Schaer, president of the Circulo Israelite and the Comitee Central Judio, the organization of representatives of all Jewish organizations in Bolivia and his wife Jeanette (Maedy) Schaerf who since her immigration in 1938 has been outstandingly involved in the Zionist cause is president of Magbith and the WIZo. Leon Schaerf in Bolivia together with his brother Josef built a plywood factory. Dr. Jenette Schaerf, husband's name Kormes; Leopold Schaerf, owner of a gold and silver ware store; Simon Horowitz and wife Klara, nee Halstuch; Efraim Singer and wife; Klara Aspis; Adolf Tisch and daughter Renee, married name Rosenblum; Lisa Medak nee Bauer; Louis Feuerstein; Martin Zloczower; Salo Huebner and wife Edith, nee Korn-Wagner; Efraim Lilenfeld; Chaim Rinzler and daughter Mina, married name Schalachman and son David Rinzler; Jaques Singer and wife Dolly, nee Rosenberg; David and Leo Kirmayer; DoraGruenbaum, nee Halsbuch; Martin Klueger and mother Maria Klueger; Engineer Berthold Feller; Wilhelm Wolf Gans and wife Gitta, nee Kempler and many others.

In Columbia we know the Bukovina wholesaler Carlos (karl) Kugler and Dr. Ullrich Schnapp, Seidner, Dr. Carol Haber, Simon Gottlich, though there are other Bukoviner who up to now have not made themselves known by their interest in other Bukoviner

Brazil

Of the Bukoviner who found refuge in Brazil, most live in San Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horiizonte. They haven't forgotten their old homeland and express lively interest in the fate of their countrymen from the old world. The preceding work, “History of the Jews in Bukovina,” found in San Paulo many understanding and thankful readers. Above all, we want to thank the gentlemen Carol D .Finger who with untiring zeal helped to distribute the work among his fellow San Paulo residents.

Mr. Carol Finger descended from a Russian Jewish family that emigrated to Bukovina in 1868. His father Jankel Finger was a worthy tailor in Czernowitz who had to work hard to support his wife and 8 children. Carol Finger began as an apprentice in the Luttenger workshop and was a member of the Exchange. Later he went to work in the Moldavia Bank where he rose to officer level. In 1934 he married Paula Walter. After the war, he moved to Bucharest and traveled through Prague and Brussels to Paris where he lived 8 years and emigrated in 1955 to San Paulo. There he rapidly worked his way up.

In Rio De Janeiro there is a Brazilian Jewish Institute of Historical Research whose president is Prof. Dr.A. Wiznilizer who came from Bukovina.

Of the Bukoviner in Brazil should still be named: Aron Goldman born 1902 in Suceava; lived 1950 – 1952 in Vienna and emigrated from there to Brazil with his wife and sons Sami (born 1912 in Sereth, banker in San Paulo) and David. Marcus Linker, born 1885 in Storoozynetz, banker and hotel owner, lived in Czernowitz, Bucharest and Tel-Aviv, before he came to San Palo. His son, Dr. Maximillian Linker (born 1912 in Czernowitz) graduated from the Business High School in Paris, became Doctor of Law in Cluj, was lawyer in Czernowitz and Bucharest; lives as a successful industrialist in San Paulo. Also there live the Blank sisters, married names Peckelmann and Marghit and Weissbach. Other Bukovina in Brazil whose names have come to our attention are: Wilhelmbachman, Friedrich Bauer, Moses Biener, Juda and Mischu Bernstein, Dr. Jakob Billig,( Rolf Brumberger, Carol Drescher, Hugo Ehrmann, M. Fang, F. Fessler, Dr. Otto Fischer, Felix Fischmann, Hirsch Gleicher, Stefan Goldschlaeger, Simon Goldstein, Max Gottesfeld, Adolf Gotteesmann, Nelly Grodzinska, Carlos Greif, Freddy and Kurt Greif, Lulu Horenstein, Bubi Horowitz, David Hubner, Joseph Kissner, Leo Klinger, Heinz Kraft, Benjamin Kulikowski, Dr. James Landmann, Benno (Buziu) Landwehr, Jakob Landwehr, Dr. Paul Lauder, Benno Meerbaum, Narco Mehler, David Rathsprecher, Max Rauchwerger, Mosche Reiner, Hermann and Eduard Rinzler, Francesca Roessler, Dr. Moses Runes, Frieda Schaffer, Dr. Alexander Scharff, Dr. Frederic Schechter, Emil Schieber, Isak and Carl Schnapp, Albert Strum, H. Thau, Toni Trebicz, Karl Weinberger, Salo Wiedner, Dr. Herbert and Oswald Weiser J. and Rudol fZeiger, Jakob Zloczower.

Canada

Approximately 200 years ago the first documented Jew, Aharon Hart settled in Trois Rivieres approximately 200 miles from Montreal. As a member of the military staff of General Amherst he had much success and was highly respected. During the following years only a few Jews immigrated. These Jews came together in their own community. Only after the persecution of Jews in Russia and Rumania that took place in 1880 did displaced Jews come with their families to Canada. The Jews already established in Canada were concerned about economic competition from the new immigrants. They formed committees to help them and got money from the Jewish philanthropists Baron Hirsch, Baron Rothschild, Guttman and Reitzes to provide the refugees with tickets to European Jewish communities. Few were able to remain in Europe. A systematic emigration began to the United States, Australia and Canada which was the preferred country to emigrate to. Around the turn of the century began the flow of Romanian emigrants, accelerated by the unbearable pressure that they were subjected to. A Jewish colony was established in Gajer. Also in other locations there were many Romanian Jews whose descendants are today large scale farmers, industrialists, doctors, professors and lawyers in Canada. Some Bukoviner we can name are attorney Goldenberg from Suceava, one of the most respected lawyers in Saskatchewan, the Czernowitzer Josef Schwarzfeld, president of the Jewish community in Regina, the largest city in Saskatchewan with a Jewish population of approximately 1000 of which about 13% are descendants of Bukovina immigrants, Louis Fitsch, who around the turn of the century was elected to the legislature of the province of Quebec. His successor was Senator Hart, likewise a Bukoviner. A significant role was played in Quebec by the Zurif family, also from Bukovina. Young Bukoviner from all of Canada came again and again to Quebec at the urging of their parents in order to find a bride from Bukovina. The feeling of community of the Bukoviner called them again and again to their fellow Bukoviner. They were proud that they came from Bukovina and later as Bukovina came under Romanian rule they strongly rejected the notion of Romania being their homeland.

Dr. Sommerfeld became the secretary of all the organizations founded by Baron Hirsch. A Jewish settlement to which some Bukoviner belonged was named after him .These settlers enjoyed special support from the JCA {Jewish Community Appeal} whose Director Rosenberg was especially commendable. Many Bukoviner Jews were very successful as industrialists. Well known were Bronfman, one of the richest men in Canada, who was active in all branches of industry. Grover, one of the magnates of the clothing industry, Jaques Viktor from Stefanestie, Brecher from Stulpikany, the Roskies brothers who until 1940 led a rubber factory in Czernowitz who owned a textile factory in Hunhington, Dr.Morgenstern owned a large tricot factory, Iwanier owned an iron and steel factory, Zimmermann a mirror factory.

In 1954 ten Bukoviner who could not forget their homeland, which they had left not long ago, came together to form the Bukovina Relief Organization. A Bukoviner died a tragic death that could have possibly been prevented if material and moral support had been provided in a timely manner. The founders called together approximately 100 Bukoviner in Montreal to turn the idea into reality. They were successful and the organization was brought to life. Its task was to unite all Bukoviner in order that based on social and cultural events money for social welfare could be raised. Suffering Bukoviner who were dispersed in the wide world as well as those who were deported to Siberia would be found and as far as possible provided with clothing packages and money. Finally, a “ladies auxiliary” would be founded that worked very successfully in social welfare. Since its founding, the organization has remained focused on its goals. In March, 1955, the Jewish National Fund in Israel was given a sum of money to plant a grove of 1000 trees in memory of the Bukovina Nazi victims.

The United Bukovina Association erected a martyrs memorial in Montreal in memory of their fellow Bukoviner who died in Transnistria, Siberia and the Nazi death camps during the years 1940 to 1945. Annually memorial services organized by Atorney S. Heller are held to commorate the beginning of the ghetto in Czernowitz.

In the years 1958 to 1959 Dr. N. Getzler was president of the Bukovina Organization and in the following year Pharmacist Leo Stein stood at the head. As vice presidents served Attorney S. Heller, A. Gatenberg amd E. Labin. The Board of Directors was composed of: I. Adler, f. Cooper, M. Ellner, B. Gartenlaub, B. Glaz, O. Grauer, B. Hammer, J. Koerner E. Landrecht, L. Liebmann, L. Mieler, M. Reller N. Schwarz, Attorney M. Segall A. Selzer, S. Singer, A. Treisser, Pharmacist Wolloch and R. Zimmermann.

The election for the years 1960-1961 gave the following results: Honarary president Leo Stein, President: Alex Gartenberg: vice presidents Salo Heller, EddyLabin and Morris Reller; Executive Secretary Oswald Grauer, treasurer: Philipp Wolloch, Finance secretaryNathanSchwarz Trustees: F. Cooper, M. Ellner, J. kernerand L. Liebmann Aussschussmitglieder, the gentlemen J. Adler, M. Einhorn, B. Gartenlaub ,B. Glanz ,E. Landrecht M. Lerner, M. Lecker, A. Lorentz, E. Moses, M. Segall, A. Selzer, S. Singer, A. Treisser and R. Zimmermann.

Well known in Bukovina circles are the names of Adolf Andermann (died 1956), Mrs. Anny Andermann, their son Dr. Frederick Andermann, Dr. N. Getzle, Dr. Brettler and many others.

*

Dr. Nathan Getzler, born 1897 in Putilla, graduated in 1915 from the Vienna Sophiengymnasium {Sophie High Scool} and enrolled in the medical school there. He graduated in 1922 and worked in the clinic specializing in sexually transmitted diseases and skin ailments under Professor Finger. Since 1930 doctor in Czernowitz where he founded the Grossberg library in the Massada and inaugurated the support system for Polish refugees. In the years 1946-1949 he worked in the General {Allgemein} Hospital in Vienna and in the infirmary of the Jewish community. Since 1949 he is a Clinical University assistant in Montreal. He has written numerous articles about the results of new research in medical journals and works as a medical advisor for the editorial staff of the Montreal News. He has been married since 1921 to the dentist Dr. Ernestine (ne Brettler). Daughter Lisa live in Montreal as the wife of business manHermann Glanz.

Chile

More than 30,000 Jews live in Santiago and approximately 8000 Jews in the rest of Chile. The majority of the Jews living in the capital city immigrated in the years 1937-1940 from all areas of Europe, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia, Hungary and Lithuania. The refugees created their own landsmanschaften of which the Organization of German Jews is the largest. Also, the Bukoviner founded their own group in 1946, the Comite de Ayudea Bucovina {Help Committee for Bukovina}. Since 1939 about 300 people have emmigrated from Bukovina and of these 300 almost half came from Czernowitz. The Help Committee for Bukovina had the task of materially helping its brothers and sisters in Bukovina who were in need and also of supporting Bukoviner in Chili who were in need. They were unable to send money to Romania but only air mail packages with food and medicines and other useful material

The commercial life of the colony is for the most part concentrated in the landsmanshaft. The Help Committee for Bukovina has luxuriously outfitted rooms in the city center that among other things include a ballroom, a club room and a library. During the year the organization runs sociable events including music, singing and dances, excursions, lectures, cultural afternoons, etc. Yearly a grand ball is held which already has achieved certain fame in Santiago and which is also attended with enthusiasm by many non-Bukoviner. These affairs generally produce high profits that go into the social support fund. The Bukovina Relief Fund also contributes to other Jewish causes. It has also made possible the aliyah to Israel for several Jews. The organization is also represented in many Jewish bodies such as Joint, Hias and the Zionist State Organization in Chili by special representatives who have a place and a voice at their meetings. At the General Assembly of 1958 the Help Committee for Bukovina changed its name to the Cultural Society of Jewish Bukovina. Among the members there is a close spiritual bond with the people of Israel. To nurture this bond lecturers on the works of Jewish authors and on relevant scientific topics are regularly scheduled. Yearly in October the organization has a memorial service for the thousands of victims who died in Bukovina and Transnistria .In memory of the brothers and sisters murdered during the years of the persecution 1941-1944 and the deportation from their homeland Bukovina the organization has placed a memorial tablet in the mausoleum of the local cemetery. Almost all the Jews of Santiago were present at the memorial service held at the unveiling of the tablet during October, 1953. Similarly, on the anniversaries of the deaths of important Jewish figures like Dr. Theodor Herzl, Dr. Chaim Weizmann, Dr. Mayer Ebner, memorial services are held. The first vice president was Julius Kornberg (1946-1947); he was followed by Jakob Rothfeld (1947-1948); Oskar Segall (1948-1949); Dr. Berthold Heiss (1949-1950); Carlos Gabr (1950-1951); Dr. Bernardo Ebner (1951-1952); Herman Schachner (1952-1954); Jakob Rothfeld (1954-1955); Emanuel Landmann (1955-1956); Hermann Schachner (1956-1957); since 1957-1958 Carl Ludwig Herdan.

We must pay special tribute to the work of Mr. Hermann Schachner under whose presidency the organization on June 1956 celebrated the tenth anniversary of its founding. He was greatly supported in his charitable work by Organization Secretary and board member Carl Ludwig Herdan.

The new leadership was composed as follows :President: Carl Ludwig Herdan (in 1961 stepped down due to health problems), Vice President: Saul Haffner, General Secretary: Hersch Richter, Leaders of the Culture Section: Dr. Miguel Adler and Wilhelm Gross, Treasurer Siegmund Arm, Directors: Bernhard Biermann, Rafael Liebmann-Reiter, Jakob Altneu, Hermann Klein.

The organization mourned the loss of one of its elected director, Hermann Weschler, who passed away on March 23, 1959.

Germany

One differentiated two different groups of Bukoviner in the West German Republic. Those who lived there before the war and who survived the National Socialist persecution and the small number who came in after the war. The officials tried to nip signs of discrimination in the bud. The commercial situation of the Jews and that of the Bukoviner minority in particular had to be viewed as favorable, though the atmosphere was still poisoned and the memories of the past weighed heavily on the relationship with the non-Jewish world. From the Bukoviner who have apparently fitted in we will name the following: The former lawyer, Dr. Herold Binderer, owner of a wine depot in Munich, Carl Busch (Berlin)[1], Wilhelm Brecher in Duesseldorf, Hermann and Edgar Cojocariu in Munich, Dr. Willi Engel in Munich, Dr. J. Evian-Einhorn lawyer in Dusseldorf and a son-in-law of Samuel Schmidt[2], the pharmacist Friedrich Focsaneanu and wife in Munich, S. Fredric Gronich in Frankfurt, Rudolf and Jrma Guetter (previously in Itzkany, living in Hamburg (tobacco dealer), Dr. Martin Kraft[3] specialist in internal medicine in Munich, Benno Kula in Munich, Siegfried Lehrer in Karlsruhe, Salo Lessner in Munich, Hugo Morgenstern in Munich, Dr. L. Muetzel in Hanau, Dr. Otto Neuborn in Munich, family Ranisch in Munich, Industrialist Moses Rosenkind in Munich, Gustav and Cecilie Savin (Segall)[4], WilhelmScholl and Wilhelm Sternberg in Munich, Otto Waldmann and Engineer Siegfried Wender in Munich, Oscar and Fini Wald[5] in Munich.

In Munich there is a woman's organization, “Ruth,” that is very active. The following women from Bukovina are on the board of directors: Josefine Kreisberger, Rosl Lessner and Fini Wald. In addition, Kula, Hass, Pistiner, Schmilowitz, Wender, Zubel and Neuborn are active members of the organization.

  1. Carl Busch (Kaczer-Silberbusch born in Banila in 1904 came in 1920 to Berlin as a businessman, worked in the Zionist youth movement and was sentenced to 2 ½ years forced labor, led until the war's end a resistance group of 45 people and after the collapse of Nazi rule established an aid center in Charlottenburg for Russian refuges. For many years he was a member of the “self” government of the Jewish community {In Jewish communities in some countries in Eastern Europe the Jews would manage their own affairs mainly concerning religion such as selecting a rabbi, kosher butcher, running their school, etc. This body was called the “Kultusgemeinde.” The same type of structure was set up in many of the Jew's new homelands. I'll just call it the “Jewish Self Government”} in which capacity he was responsible for the nursing home, the orphanage, a rest home as well as the Jewish hospital. Carl Busch was involved in the setting up of displaced person camps in Berlin and was leader of a youth group. In 1956 he was a delegate to the 24th Zionist congress and in 1960 he was a delegate to the 25th Zionist congress. Almost his entire family perished in Transnistria.
  2. Samuel J. Schmid t the past vice president of Misrachi in Romania was owner of the Palace Hotel in Czernowitz.
  3. Dr. Martin Kraft was born in 1894 in Arbore (district Suceava). He received his doctorate in Vienna in 1921, practiced in the Jewish clinic in Czernowitz from 1922 to 1943. In 1942 he was deported to Transnistria from where he returned one year later. In the years 1945 to 1947 he was active in Bucharest, 1947 to 1950 he practiced at the Rothschild Clinic in Vienna. From there he went to Foehrenwald as chief doctor and since 1956 he is a specialist in in internal medicine in Munich.
  4. Gustav Savin (segall) was in his time vice president of the Czernowitz Jewish self-government. He was awarded the highest Romanian medal for bravery in war. His wife Cecilie is a well-known singer. The couple moved from Paris to Munich.
  5. Oscar Wald born 1899 in Itzkany was during the years 1921-1941 a businessman in Czernowitz. As a member of the Jewish self- government he was the capable leader of the orphanage, founder of the shipping firm “Alliance” and the Jewish Help and justice organization. His wife in the years 1948-1951 was secretary of Wizo in Vienna.

England

There are a relatively large number of Bukoviner in England, most of them living in London. Among the most well know names are the twin brothers Dr. Immanuel and Dr. Jehoshua Bierer, Dr. Phoebus Tutnauer (born in Suceava in 1890),and an active Zionist since 1904, member of the Tikva Suceava and the Jordania Vienna, member of the Zion state committee for Austria, the Igul in Vienna and London, since 1938 specialist for skin diseases in London.

Emil Komer, the brother of Rudolf Kommer is living as a retire in London generously helped us in our yearlong effort to create this work with his generous contribution of a large picture collection.

Other Bukoviner who live in England (by no means a complete list): Mr. Allen (Peretz), Berta Anschel, DR. Caspar Bln, Erich David, Mr. Eisinger, Dr. Adalbert Fehr, Felix Fraser- Fuellenbaum, Lea Geger, Mrs. Gerstbacher, Jakobine Gruenberg, Henriette Hopmeyer, Mr. Jaglom, J. M. Jarvis, Bernhard Jaslowitz, Dr. H. Jarvis (Jaslowitz), RosaImmergut, Leo Isser, Ida Katz, Dr. Theese Kindler, Elfrieda Kingseley (ne Seiden-Stein-Beiner), Dr. David Kinnsbrunner, Dr.Lehmann, Edith Leigh (maiden name Kern), Franzi Lux, Mrs.Meller, Alfred Menschel, Lilly Obling (maiden name Beiner), Thea Rares-Mangold, Dr. Josef Puder, Irene Reinhard (maiden name Fuellenbaum), Carl Salmeier, Dr. LeoSchaefler, Dr. Emil Schaerf, Dr. Ludwig Schattner, Alma Schaefler, Suse Schiller (maiden Fromm), Dr. Immanuel Schleyer-Saunders, Lotte Seidmann, Gilly Simche, Ida Sitte, Juliette Steinbaue, Dr. M. Tillinger, Magistrait Jakob Tuttnauer, Isidor Warner, Selma Warner, D. Weidenfeld, George Weidenfeld, Raoul Weidenfeld, Dr. Leo Weissellberger, in Birmingham G.B. Rose (Gottlieb).

Equador

Also in Ecuador a small number of Bukovina Jews have recently settled: Mrs. Martha Scharfstein in Guayaquill, Dr. Otto Jose Scottenfeld who in the meantime has moved to New York. He came to Quito, is the son of the Czernowitz Magistrate (deceased) Dr. Israel Schottenfeld, studied in Czernowitz and Cluj, was RA in Czernowitz, moved in 1945 to Suceava, and in 1947 to Paris. In Quito he was branch manager of large firm from Guayaquill. Similarly in Quito lived Mrs. Hilda Bulow, born in Czernowitz, daughter of Dr. Sokal who died in the ghetto in Czernowitz in 1941. Also her mother Mrs. Fanny Sokal (maiden name Schwarz) found the way to Quito. Lawyer Doctor Bernhard Singer whose wife and daughter settled in New York found his rest in Quito.

Frnace

The Jews who were hounded and persecuted everywhere tried to escape the constant pressure by emigrating. With a little initiative and luck some were able to find a safe haven abroad. On their way to overseas havens many Bukoviner decided to stay in France if they were able to find employment there. The spiritual homeland of educated Europeans had a strong attraction for the Jews seeking freedom.

A larger emigration of students and other intellectuals from Bukovina started when the Romanian government ignoring the terms of the peace agreement systematically repressed the Jewish residents of the land. It was in the years 1924-1925 that racism and anti- Semitism began to spread in the country. This situation as well as the “numerous clausus” at the universities gave the impetus to a great number of Jewish students to leave Romanian Bukovina and for the most part to go to France to study at French universities. In Bukovina and other parts of the new Greater Romania conditions became worse from year to year. Soon a “numerus nulus” policy was adopted for Jews in government administration jobs and furthermore they were subjected to “exception” laws. These measures led to the emigration of other strata of Romanian society. These people found a second home in France, the traditional land of Freedom.

Around that time the founding of the organization “The Association of Bukovina Students” which was led for many years by Dr. Rosenbach took place. In the following years the number of immigrating students rose significantly and the Bukovina colony in France took on ever greater significance. After finishing their studies most students settled in France due to the political situation in Romania. They fit in and acquired French citizenship. After the attacks by Hitler' bands started in 1939 most of the Bukoviner who had not become citizens registered as volunteers to help defend their adopted land. Most of them fought at the front in the so called “border regiments and many of them were captured and shared the fate of their French comrades in the German prisoner of war camps.

As after the occupation of France by the Germans the resistance movement came to life Bukoviners took and active part in the underground fight .Many of our people were killed by being shot by the Germans or being transported to the camps. Entire families were decimated there. We must mention Medical Doctor Rafael Ellenbogen from Kirlibaba (district Kimpolung). With the outbreak of the Second World War he voluntarily reported for duty in the French army. Already in 1940 he was an officer in the French exile government under General de Gaulle who at that time was located in London.

After the liberation, the Bukoviner gradually returned. They found themselves at that time in great need. The rescued children of the deportees {deported to Transnistria?} were scattered everywhere. Many families had no money and no help. The few who were captured or deported who had the good fortune to be able to return couldn't find jobs.

The necessity for taking measures to help the orphans and the victims of the Nazis led to the founding of the Society to Help Those Who originated in Bukovina. The president of the society is Medical Doctor N. Brumberg. This society had the goal of contacting all the Bukoviner living in France, to help them materially and to organize cultural l activities. The Bukoviner were happy to see each other again at cultural activities and meetings, especially at the Night Ball which had become a tradition and occasion. This ball which took place at the salon of the Central House in Paris was attended by 300 to 350 Bukoviner, some of whom came from distant provinces of France. There memories were exchanged. The members of the committee who organized this very successful event are to be thanked for their efforts. Especially effective were Mr. Kurt Kuenstlich, Mrs. Edith Teller, Mr. Wachtel, Mr and Mrs. Oehlgiesser, Mrs schaechter and further the gentlemen Landesberg ,Weisselberg and many others.

Many Bukoviner held important posts in the commercial life of France. There were doctors and engineers. The majority were however successful businessmen. As industrialists, the brothers Jacky and Sacha Schneider as owners of the largest factory for radio and television sets took a first place. Also Bukovina artists were successful. The painter Kolnik[1] knew how to use his talents successfully. Bukoviner were also to found among the writers. Our fellow Bukoviner Vogel published the book “La Vie Pathethiqu de Theodore Herzl. Also in the area of science children of Bukovina shined. The following should be noted: Dr. Tuchmann, professor of pathological embryology in Paris. Professor Dr. Hermann Mayer[2] similarly at the university in Lille, Dr. Ernst Reinhold Kern[3], since 1941 Professeur Agrege at the medical faculty in Paris.

Many Bukoviner also took an active part in political life. Among them were mayors and city councilmen. When in November 1947 a scurrilous anti-Semitic campaign of great intensity was initiated by a large Paris daily against doctors of foreign origin, Bukoviners Dr. Oster, Dr. Kern, Dr. Rauchbach, and Dr. Brumberg among others started an energetic counter action which led to the splitting of the publication. Bukoviner in France were especially interested in life in Israel. While every immigrant has two homelands, the former one and France, the Bukoviner in France can claim three, Bukovina, France and Israel.

We make no claim to completeness in listing the follow names of distinguished Bukoviner living in France: Dr. B. Auerbach and his wife Suzanne (maiden name Lang, a daughter of the lawyer Dr. Lang from Czernowitz). In Neuilly live the busy doctors Dr. Reinhold Kern and his wife, Dr. Fanny (maiden name Ungar). In Paris Engineer Philippe Herzan a leading industrialist in the television industry (comes from Kotzman) and his wife, Dr. Medicine Heriette Herzan (maiden name Billig from Czernowitz, daughter of Claude) live in a villa in Verrieresle Buisson; the former grain exporter Alfred Fischler, presently the general director of a worldwide grain concern whose wife Lya carries on charitable efforts; the married couple Dr. Josef and Toni Frischman, Dr. Maxim Rubel[4], Dr. Paul Feigher[5], Gisele Tannenbaum, Dr. Wolfgang Fokschaner, Siegmund Lehr, Dr. Felix Blumenfeld from Gurahumora, Gustav Brumberg ,Ernst Braun, Dr. Burg from Kimpolung, Mrs. Dr. Berkowitz-Sudre, Dr. Leopold Berl from Suceava, Mex Delfiner from Sereth, Lawyer Dubensky from Czernowitz, Dr. Drucker from Storozynetz, Dr. Albert Ebner, Dr. Maurice Engel, Dr. Efraim and Kalman Ellenbogen Dr. Otto Edelstein, Rica Fischbein, Dr. Alfred Fischler, Gruenberg-Garvin, Nobert Grill, Dr. J. Gebuehrer, Dr. Goldschlaeger from Gurahumora, Dr. Gronich from Czernowitz, Dr. Gruenberg, Hermann Gutherz, Karp Brothers, Dr. Henry Kula, Dr. Kellner, Dr. Katz from Czernowitz, Kuenstlich, Dr. Serge Kern from Suceava, Dory Leh,r Dr. Marian, Dr. Margulies from Storozynetz, the well-known and prestigious author Herbert Le Porrier, son of Prof. Birnbaum from Czernowitz, Dr. Oster, Mrs. Dr. Rauchbach from Gurahumora, family Rosenberg, Dr. Josef Reiss, Sacha Schneider ,Engineer Camillo Schleyer, son of Prof. Israel Schleyer from Czernowitz, Dr. Schmerer, Dr. Herbert Schaffer from Suceava, Dr. J. Schulsinger, Sternschus,s Dr. Leo Treisser Dr. Turk, Vogel, Dr. Weissberg ,Dr. Arkadius Warter, Dr. Waldmann, Dr. R. Wolloch from Stanestie, D. Zimmet from Czernowitz.

  1. Arthuk Kolnik, born 1892, studied in Stanislau and Krakau, 1919-1931 in Czernowitz, there he gave the portfolio with 12 woodcuts Elieser Steinbarg to be published, exhibition of his work 1921 in New York, since 1931 in Paris.
  2. Dr. Hermann Mayer, born 1909 in Piedecautz (Czernowitz);Studied in Czernowitz; 1939 Assistant for Physics at the Czernowitz University; 1950 became a scientific researcher of the French State Institute in Nancy; Author of several scientific publications on electronics; since 1957 chief of the Radio –Technical Institute at the University of Lille. Presently is a researcher abroad.
  3. Dr. Ernest Kern was a provincial doctor until the outbreak of the war; during the war, a member of the resistance in France, then in England, from where he reached Spain in 1943;made with French troops the landing in Normandy; in 1945 decorated with the Croix de Guerre,; 1949elevated to Knight of the Legion of Honor.
  4. Dr. Maxim Rubel, studied mathematics and philosophy at the University of Czernowitz, achieved his PhD in philosophy and political science in Paris; active in publishing; published a series of philosophical works.
  5. Dr. Paul Feigher, born 1908 in Falticeni (Bukovina); studied at the law school in Czernowitz and Clui; R.A. in Galatz; afterwards active in export and import, fled 1941 from Bukovina through Turkey to Eretz Israel where he worked until 1948; then came to Abessinien and lived since 1948 in Paris

Italy

The few Bukoviner who fate led to Italy did not nourish their spiritual connection with their former countrymen. The famous painter Prof. Berthold Klinghofer was an exception as well as were the merchants Schmiel Hecht and N. Nagel and Mrs. R. Huebner in Milan and Mr. Curzio Herschman in Florence. Professor Klinghofer, born 1893 in Paltinoasa (Bukovina), studied in the Academy of Illustrated Art in Vienna was during the war an officer in the infantry regiment number 41 and was in this position repeatedly honored, finally from Archduke Eugen personally. He functioned as professor in the Gymnasium in Gurahumora and Czernowitz, was at times a businessman, but he never ceased his artistic activity. He was a very successful painter and in spite of the whims of fate which led him to Paris, Canada and Italy carried on. One of his masterpieces was displayed in 1959 in the Palazzo della Permannte in Milan di Oggi. His landscape pictures and historical paintings from Bukovina which were displayed in the Permanente XXXII Bienale, Familie Artistica, , Society Artisti e Patriotica as well as other official shows, bring the artist especially close to the hearts of his countrymen. Some pictures with views of Czernowitz have a special place among his works, such as the North Side of Ringplatz (burned with by the Russians in 1941), with the cars of the electric tram in front of the station, a heart stirring picture for those who carry it in their hearts, a jewel like memory from the days of their youth.

The following Bukoviner, as far as we know still live in Italy: D.r Bernardo, Dr. Adolf and wife Prof. Sylvia Einhorn, Engineer Tritt and wife in Milan, also Dr. Heinrich Krau who came from Germany to Italy; Chaskel Zucker (previously industrialist) in Rome.

Morocco

Even in this land with little commerce which is famous for its hatred of Jews, a few Bukovina Jews have found refuge. One of them was Bernhard Kahn who left Gurahumora in 1952 to go to his son, Dental Surgeon A. Kahn in Tangiers. He was an unusually dynamic man who the Gurahumora Jews can thank for the rebuilding of the Hand Workers Synagogue and the repairing of their graveyard. He tirelessly sent food packages from Tangiers to needy Jews in Romania. His friend M. Wieselmann, a supporter of the above mentioned work helped and admired the wise old man who felt sick when he couldn't provide assistance. He died on March 29 in Tangiers. Honor his memory.

Mexico

Of the former Bukoviner who live in Mexico, we should first mention the former district attorney in Czernowitz, Dr. Sigmund Bibring. He enjoys the trust of the Jews in his former home and was elected by them to the position of president of the Jewish Self Government of the country and he was sent as a delegate to the 25th Zionist Congress in Israel in 1961. Dr. Bibring, before he came to Mexico (1943) was highly honored because of his work in Bucharest organizing help for refugees from Bukovina. His wife Fini (maiden name Weitzner) set a sterling example in her care for orphans in Transnistria. When it became known that the Bibrings were planning to leave Bukovina, the Aid Committee of the Jewish Central met on November 30, 1943 to bid them goodbye. Mr. Chief Rabbi, Dr. Alexander Safran (today, chief rabbi in Geneva), the attorneys Schwefelberg and M. Benevenisti and the women Amy Andermann, Betty Schwefelberg and Dorina Gruenberg sung the praises of the unusual and successful volunteer spirit of the departing ones. The minutes of this memorable meeting have been preserved. Among others, the following former Bukoviner live in Mexico: Dr. L. Kommer, Engineer Armando Rudich, former owner of the Mecano factory in Czernowitz (since 1938); similarly to be found there are his son Engineer Carlos Rudich and the sister Mrs. Cecilia Rudich; Engineer Alfredo Rudich, the stepbrother of Engineer Armando Rudich; Dr. Jaques Theodore Krauthammer, formerly from Czernowitz; Dr. Awram R. Meer, formerly attorney in Czernowitz, Dr. Rudolf Grauer (from Sereth), formerly attorney in Vienna; Jose Oberwaeger, formerly owner of the radio store Minerva in Czernowitz. (Information from Dr. Ludwig Kammer)

Switzerland

The Jewish residents of Switzerland made up only .5% of the entire population. Approximately 20,000 Jews lived in this country, of whom, only very few came from Bukovina. The stringent rules about immigrating to Switzerland during and after the Second World War prevented the influx of any great number of Bukoviner. Due to the loyal cooperation of the loyal and competent Swiss authorities, some Bukoviner were able to set roots in this land.

In Zurich live Mr. and Mrs. Simon Beer (Mr. Beer is the owner of the Swiss cigarette factory Sullana), Engineer Roberto Greif; Isador Koppelmann (Member of the academic association Hasmonaea); Dr. S. Menzel, the owner of the well-known book publisher Diana in Zurich; Salo Schmidt (director of Ursus A.G. Zurich); Laura (Lola) Donnermann, maiden name Granierer with her husband Rudolf Donnermann; Sigmund Pulmann (founding member of the academic association Heatid) and his brother Albert Pulmann, well known in Switzerland as a director and actor; Dr. of medicine, Bruno Scmeregel and Engieer Schmucker.

In Sissach near Basel live the couple Leon and Angie Fischer (nee Dubowy) with their daughter Fanny, nee Boller. (end first column)

In Montagnola near Lugarno lived Ninon Hesse (nee name Auslaender) with her husband Hermann Hesse, the famous poet and author.

In Geneva: Dr. Medicine Josef Mandler with wife, daughter and mother. This is the family of the former Czernowitz merchant Mandler ( Firm of Zauderer & Mandler with wife, daughter and mother), Dr. Norbert Kurz with wife, daughter and son. Dr. Kurz graduated from the “Institut Universitaire des Hautes Etudes Internationales” and is a diplomatic official in the International office of the United Nations in Geneva. He wrote a highly respected work over Article 11 of the Peoples' Organization Agreement, is leader of the department which concerns itself with working conditions in all the chemical factories in the world. On his extensive business trips he often comes to Israel. Dr. Kurz is also a member of the academic organization Heatid.

In Winterhur: Markus Breitner, director of the Winterhur Strauss theater and the City Association of Theaters Solothurn-Biel. He has done much over the years to develop this “city of art.”

In Davos: Attorney Dr. Moses Silberrothe and the well-known pianist Clara Zappler.

In Biel: Otto Fillmar (Fuellenbaum), actor and director in the City Association of Theaters Solothurn-Biel.

Unfortunately several of our earlier countrymen have already found their eternal rest and have been interred in Swiss soil.

In the Jewish cemetery “Unterer Friesenberg” in Zurich can be found the grave of a famous son of Bukovina, the former singer Joseph Schmidt who came to Switzerland in 1933 fleeing from the National Socialist criminals. Annually, members of the Jewish community hold services on the day of his death to honor his memory.

In the same cemetery lie Anna Pulman (nee Hermann), the widow of the former Czermowitz merchant Zacharias Pulmann and the mother of the brothers Albert and Sigmund Pulmann.

Additionally, Jacob M. Riemer who as a book printer emigrated in 1906 from Czernowitz to Zurich. His son Bernhard Riemer carries on his father's business.

Finally, Mrs. Terner (nee Falikman), the oldest daughter of the former Czernowitz textile buyer Tob. Terner. (Related by Siegmund Pulmann, Zurich.)

Uruguay

In Uruguay live as many as 50,000 Jews and of these, 30,000 live in the capital Montevideo and the rest are scattered among various provincial cities. They are mainly involved in commerce and industry and have almost without exception become prosperous. One can separate the newly arrived immigrants from the “old timers.” In the former class are the descendants of those Jews who many years ago immigrated from Czarist Russia, Lithuania, Poland, Galicia, Bukovina and other lands. Many of these are engaged in the professions. Their everyday language is Spanish. They are no longer fluent in the Yiddish that they heard in their parent's house.

There are four groups that can clearly be distinguished from one another, The Polish, the Germans, the Hungarian and the Sephardic Jews. Each group or community (Kehila) has its own prayer houses and rabbi. The Sephardic, the richest among them retain their characteristic pride in their ancestors and have their own cemetery, while the other groups share a cemetery. In order to be completely accurate, there is another group, the Communists. This group because of its small numbers and minor significance has no presence in commerce and is only worthwhile mentioning as a historical curiosity. The Jewish Communists are the confused victims of Red propaganda and go so far in their hate of tradition that even in death they want to be separated from other Jews. They have their own cemetery. Incidentally, living together causes no friction. Religion is respected and Jews seldom deny their religion. On Sabbath and holidays, the prayer houses are overfilled and on weekdays, however, the number of visitors barely makes up a minyan {(minimum of 10 congregants needed to hold a service}. The six rabbis who officiate in Montevideo are highly respected by the community.

Many of the Jews who immigrated from Bukovina belong to the “Association of Israelites from Bukovina in Uruguay. and elected Leopold Kunkes as president. Well known Bukoviner are among others: Harry Hausner, General Council Bernhard Doregger, Klara Doregger, Willi Gottesmann, Simon Hecht, Dr. Hermann Hering, Otto Matfes, David Scherzer, Dr. Adolf Schickler, Gustav Schletter, Eli Mathias Schubert, Karl Tenenbaum, Mrs Wender Edith Zwecker.

The Jews in Uruguay enjoy the full rights of citizens and the government allows no discrimination. Some animosity can be detected under the surface, but it never breaks through. The Jews are allowed o send their children to the public schools, but all groups have built up a private school system. In all Jewish schools instruction in Hebrew is obligatory; in the schools of the Polish Jews, in addition to Hebrew and Spanish, also Yiddish is spoken. Yiddish is probably the day-to-day language of the new immigrants. In contrast, the Jews place a high value on the learning of Hebrew

The Jews of Uruguay express a great love for Zion. In practice this shows itself in support for Israel. Jews from all economic levels contribute

The political life of the Jews of the country is strongly influenced by Israel. In Uruguay there are General Zionists, Progressives, Friends of Mapai etc., although political differences never lead to conflict. The love of Israel unites all Jews.

There is a noticeable tendency to Hachschara {Hebrew word for agricultural training facility}. In many towns boys and girls prepare themselves for life in Israel. Their ideal is to go to Israel as Chaluzim {pioneers, early Israel settlers} and thus to fit in. Many try a “test year” before they make their final decision. (Divulged by Dr. S. Mehler s.A.)

United States of America

Bukovina Center Benevolent Society, New York

This organization was founded by immigrants from Bukovina to the U.S.A. after the First World War on November 6, 1920.There were several reasons for its creation. The new surroundings, the unfamiliarity with the English language, and the difficult fight for their daily bread which made life hard for the immigrants led to its founding .Mr. Adolph Kesch was elected as president. The reason for the founding was not only to help each other in case of need, it was also to replace the cultural atmosphere that they were used to.

After the initial difficulties, the organization began under the leadership of capable men to develop a steadily growing activity. A new charter came out of a committee chaired by Mr. Adolph Kesch, the sitting president of the organization. Mr. Adolph Seidner was also a member of the committee. This charter was unanimously approved at the meeting of December 30, 1933 chaired by Julius Brueckner, the president at that time. The development of the organization kept pace with the constantly changing situation and the leadership circle was continually refreshed. Since the charter could no longer be changed former presidents L. Goldstein and S. Weintraub worked out bylaws which the organization under President Adolf Feder adopted on May 4, 1930.

After World War II when the surviving Bukoviner returned from Transnistria and needed help, the organization took a leadership role and was the driving force in organizing the United Bukovina Relief Organization. Which brought help to the suffering victims of Nazi terror. Many leading members of the Bukovina Center – the president of the organization, Harry Rosenzweig, who was at the same time vice president of the new organization and others whose names are too numerous to list were active in the new support organization and contributed with selfless dedication to the success of the help actions it initiated. In this way, it was possible in 1946 to send clothing and food valued at $136,914 to the Bukovina Central Committee (led by Summer Wolf) in Bucharest. The shipment was intended for the needy Jews from Bukovina.

With the creation of the state of Israel the Bukovina Center turned its activity in a new direction. It purchased thousands of dollars' worth of Israeli bonds using all its energy to help the development of the state of Israel.

The flow of new immigrants after the Second World War to the Bukovina Center presented the organization with new problems. The effort to find a common denominator for all the demands spoke for the vitality of the organization and its spiritual elasticity. In this way it could manage the altered circumstances and the new demands. The Bukovina Center under its current president, Adolf Steiner and Vice President B. Stenzler, now celebrating the 40th anniversary of its founding is broad minded, democratic and it is still growing.

The Bukovina Cultural Organization in New York

136 West 75 Street, New York 28, N.Y.

In New York, the center of immigration for European Jews, there are approximately 30 organizations' that have been founded within the course of the last 50 years. These organizations are still led by the descendants of the immigrants from Czernowitz, Waschkoutz, Wiznitz, Stanestie, Sadagura, etc.

In 1951, a strong influx of fellow countrymen from Europe who had survived the persecution of the last war and their imprisonment in various camps started arriving in the uSA. The old organizations had of course helped our fellow countrymen during the war, but the new situation was to a certain degree strange to them.

Among the fellow countrymen who had been here for 25 years, but had not been active in the old organizations were to be found the publisher Dr. Dagobert D.Runes and Bank Director Fabian Roll. Assessing the new situation, Dr. Rolls proposed creating a new organization that would be responsible for the new immigrants. At first, the new organization was to be a collection point for newly arrived intellectuals, but at the first meeting in February 1952, the founding members, Dr. Dagobert Runes, Dr. Karl Ruebner s.A., Dr. Victor Landau, Dr. Hermann West (from Waschkourtz), Dir. Fabian Roll, I. Delcau, Martin Scheid, Mrs. Dr. Gisella Scheid as well as Mrs. Dr. Gusti Runes decided to make the organization a collection point for all Bukoviner. It was decided to build up the organization as a social and cultural circle, but they quickly decided to support Bukoviner who had emigrated from Romania to Israel as well as those who had emigrated to the U.S.A.

The organization which has done praiseworthy work in all its endeavors for six years remains since its founding under the leadership of its horary president Dr. Dagobert D. Runes and the committee consisting of the following members: President Dr. Victor Landau; Vice presidents Dr. Gisella Scheid and Willhelm Gabor; Treasurer Martin Scheid; Dr. B.l Roland (welfare); Henry Ternbach, Max Neuuman (Zensor); Secretaries Mrs. Stella Ronald and Mrs. Lotte Schieber; Mrs. S. Brief; Mrs. J. Ternbach; and Mrs. Ditta Gabor.

The following ladies, although not officers were of great help to the organization in setting up events: Mary Runes (nee Gronich), Mrs. Isabella Berger (nee Gronch) and Mrs Lilly Delcau.

The following candidates were elected to the committee at the January 1961 election: Dr. Dagobert D. Runes (horary president, Dr. Victor Landau (president), Engineer Josef Deleau, Dr. Leopold Metsch and Mrs. Martha Sxcharfstein (Vice President), Martin Scheid (treasurer), Dr. Jacob Garin, Henry Ternbach (Zensoren), Julius Schatz (membership and fund raising), Dr. Joseph Schotenfield (recording secretary), Lote Schiber (corresponding secretary), Dr. Robert Meidler (culture instructor), Ladies committee: Martha Scharfstein (chairperson), Lilly Delcau, Mary Ruens, Dr. Gesila Scheid (vice-chairman), in addition the ladies Mrs. Brief, J. Karin, E. Metsch, N. Meidler, M. Merdinger and M. Schatz. Trustees: Dr. D. Cooper, Salo Friedmann, Louis Hafner, Dr. M. Halpern, Emil Leichter, Leo Leichtmann, Dr. CiviMerdinger, Director Fabian Roll, Dr. Gusty Runes, and Dr. M. Scharfstein.

(Information provided by Dr. Victor Landau and Engineer Max Schmidt, New York)

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The Bukoviner Jews who sought their happiness abroad for years had their eyes on the United States where new immigrants from everywhere had already opened the gates for them. Especially attractive to them was the “world city” of New York where many Bukoviner Jews had already settled and formed various organizations. Through these organizations they made contributions to help the needy and thus to continue their connection with their homeland. They also sent money to help distant relatives. An in-depth examination about the Jewish immigrants coming from Bukovina, their being absorbed into life in the USA and their success in the most diverse professions could fill a book We must be satisfied here with a brief report.

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Bukoviner in the USA. The following information was received after the draft of this book was completed.

Dr. Bennett Kraft from Arbora, brother of Physician Dr. Marten Kraft (Munich), lives in Indianapolis.

Dr. Schlomo Bickel: born 1896 in Usczieczko in Galicia; studied in Kolomea; in First World War as lieutenant in the East Armyand decorated three times; 1920-1922 publisher of the Czernowitz weekly paper, The Freedom; 1922-1939 attorney and writer in Bucharest; since 1939 in New York worked at the Yiddish daily, Tog-Morgen-Journal; member of the Pen Club and an officer at the Jewish Science Institute YVO.

Gingold, Norbert; born 1902 in Czernowitz; composer and band master; founder of the Charles Perrault Theater subsidized by the French government and the city of Marseille; founder and director of the San Francisco Opera Association; since 1952 married to Hedwig (Heddy) Gingold (nee Grabscheid); author r and painter; daughter of M.U. Dr. Gustav Grabscheid; lived in Czernowitz, Vienna and Berlin; active as artist for the Children's Opera in San Francisco.

Marguerite Kozenn-Chajes ;Born in Fratautz (district Radauti); descended from the rabbinical family Hager; musically gifted since her childhood; educated in Vienna and Czernowitz; in 1932 received the Honor Award of the city of Vienna and an award at the First International Competition for Singing; studied at the Vienna State Academy and at the Mozarteum in Salzburg ;in 1933 the first dramatic singer Teplitz-Schoenau; 1934 primadona at the Vienna Volks Opera; guest performer in Prague, Bruenn and Bucharest; radio and concert singer in Paris; since 1940 wih her husband, the well-known pianist, composer and director Julius Chajes in Detroit Michigan; Concerts in Canada; since 1945 yearly tours in Europe, ; two radio concerts in Israel, also concerts in London, Paris, Zurich, Geneva, Lausanne, Monte Generi (Switzerland), Radio Vienna, Salzburg, Rai in Rome, Radio Prague, Munich and Berlin; sings in 17 languages (including Chinese); leading in Detroit Symphony Orchestra; daughter Mr.l Irving Stollmann lives in Los Angeles; brother Ophthalmologist Dr. Moses Schieber in Israel.

Salomon Lehr; born1881, formerly bank director in Sadagura afterwards freight forwarding in Vienna; presently in Montclair, NY.Sons: Dr. Hans H. Lehr in Montclair and Dr. David Lehr in Lachmond NY; daughter Dr. Gisella Brazdow in Montclair and Meta Rabinowicz in Severs France.

Dr. Emanuel Merdinger; born 1906 in Suceava, earlier professor at the State University in Ferrara Italy; professor of chemistry at the Roosevelt University in Chicago.

Hermann Reifer, brother of Dr. Manfred Reifer s.A., lives as businessman in New York.

Adolf (Dore) Schaefler; born 1921 in Czernowitz; middle school in Czernowitz; deported to Moghilev; attended the high school for World Trade in Vienna, emigrated in 1951 to the USA; presently auditor in Miami Beach; mother Klara Schaefler, nee Kraemer, also in Miami Beach.

Carl Slochower (Zloczower); born in Salitza-Moldava; studied in Vienna; 1914-1918war service in Austria; 1921went to USA (New York); important position in the light metal industry; became very successful; in recent years well known philanthropist; especially active in UJA Israel Bond Drive and other humanitarian organizations

Dr. Alexander Sperber; born 1897 in Czernowitz; graduated in Vienna in 1916; studied oriental speech science in Vienna, Berlin and Bonn and at the Rabbinical Seminary in Vienna and Berlin; in Bonn 1924; employed at the Berlin Academy for Science of Judaism (1925-1933); private instructor t the University of Bonn (1928-1933) and Assistant at the University in Jerusalem (1933-1934); 1934 called to the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York. His area of expertise encompassed Biblical philology with special stress given to ancient translations of the bible.

Dr. Arnold Wiznitzer; born 1896 in Waschkoutz; studied in Suceava and Vienna, got his Doctor of Philosophy at the Vienna University in 1920; active in exporting in Vienna, Paris and Rio de Janeiro (1920-1950); published many historical studies in both Portuguese and English; in 1922 received the diploma “Doctor of the Hebrew Literature” from the Jewish Theological Seminary; works: The Records of the earliest Jewish Community in the New World, New York1954 and a history of the Moreno's and Jews in colonial Brazil (1500-1822), New York, 1959.

Bukoviner in Venezuela

In Caracas lives a small but very active group of Bukoviner, who enjoy the greatest respect among the Jewish population of the city. In their new home of choice our fellow countrymen continue the best traditions of Bukovina Judaism: helpfulness, joy of creating and true love for Zion and Israel. One of their best who with great zeal is working to preserve their memories in the book “History of the Jews in Bukovina” in which he lovingly describes their and strivings is Mr. Efraim Preschel who we are publicly thanking here.

Mr. E. Preschel graduated from the Middle School in Czernowitz, studied natural science in the universities in Czernowitz, Bucharest and Prague where he received his master's degree in Pharmacy. In Czernowitz, until the occupation by the Russians, he worked independently in industrial pharmacy. His love of Zion led him in 1942 to Eretz Israel from where he visited his sister in Caracas. He settled in this city and he is at present successfully engaged in wholesale business.

Mr. F. Preschel was interested in Zionism since he was a young man. He was a member of the middle school organization Herzlia in Czernowitz and is A.H. of the Zephirah. He is especially characterized by his love for Israel and his attachment to his fellow Bukoviner.

The Publisher

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The first settlers in Venezuela from Bukovina were:Moritz Neumann, brothers Isak and Sigmund Kohn, Abraham(Mote) Kohn, Brothers Blum, Heinrich Peffer, brothers Adolf and Mosche Einhorn, Simon Eisenthal, David Morgentern (passed away), and Moritz Wiesner.

This small group came toward the end of the 20th century to Venezuela, which at that time was not well known as a land for immigration. The conditions in Venezuela at that time were in no way favorable for the new immigrants, since this land with its natural riches in petroleum, iron, gold, diamonds, timber etc. was completely undeveloped 30 years ago. There was no industry and the only possibility for the existence of the new settlers was in the running of a small business which however was more a struggle for survival than a path to commercial success.

This situation changed in a dramatic way with the development of the oil fields by the American oil companies during the Second World War which brought large amounts of capital into the country. A tremendous expansion of both public and private building activity was enabled by this inflow of capital. Streets, schools, hospitals, housing developments for the families of workers, private homes, industries for all sorts of consumer goods, were created and trade developed into a significant business factor for the country.

In this period of commercial prosperity during the Second World War and directly afterwards, came the immigration of the greatest number of Bukovina Jews who now live here whose number is approximately 120 families. Thanks to the liberal laws of Venezuela which placed few restrictions on the establishment of businesses and industries by newcomers, the Bukoviner were able to establish themselves and no small number have been able to achieve success in business and industry.

This material success as well as the need for cultural, social and national activity of our fellow had the consequence that Bukoviner who could be found everywhere in Venezuela took a leading role in building up the necessary institutions. Since the founding of the Union Israelita whose president was then the Czernowitzer Isak Kohn and is presently the Bukoviner Samuel Kula Bukoviner were involved in the building of all Jewish institutions such as the Herzl-Bialik School, the B'nai Brith Lodge, Bikur Cholem, Tormel Or (Institute for the Blind), Chewrat Kadischa, Bet Am, Wizo, Magbit Keren Kajemeth, Childrens Home in Tel Hagiborim bei Holon for 120 children. The planed cultural center in Caracas, a splendid building for the purpose of concentrating national, cultural and business activity for the Jewish residents of Venezuela, with attached synagogue is mainly due to the initiative of the present very active president of the Union Israelite, the Bukoviner Samuel Kula.

In the intellectual professions are involved among others our highly honored Professor Gabe as Teaching Master for Greek and Latin at the Central University in Caracas as well as the younger generation, the doctors Marianne Becker, Finny Jaegermann, Nello Sekler and Engineer Paul Kinzbrunner, a nephew of Samuel Kula.

With great passion Bukoviner in Venezuela dedicate themselves to the Zionist cause with the feeling and conviction that in this way they will contribute to the securing of the existence of the Jewish people and the state of Israel.

*

Simon Eisenthal, a brother of Dr. Josef Goldstein-Eisenthal who is loved and respected in Caracas came from Czernowitz to Venezuela more than 30 years ago at the young age of 22 and can be counted as one of the pioneering members of the Bukovina Jewish community in Caracas.

Of a liberal nature, he was however in his soul, true to our religion and traditional values. Gifted musically, Simon Eisenthal often altruistically filled the function of cantor [singer of religious songs at services}, performing excellently when our fellow Jews didn't have their own synagogue or a prayer leader for the High Holiday services. Responding to this critical need for the Ashkenazi community, it was Simon Eisenthal who together with other like-minded members of the community took the initiative to found the first synagogue in Caracas specifically for the Ashkenazi Jews, collecting contributions and giving extremely generously from his own resources.

As a dutiful son of parents and a true brother of his siblings Simon Eisenthal set all the levers in motion in order after the Second World War to set up not only his direct family but also distant relatives in business.

His success in business as part owner of a cigarette firm in Venezuela was due to his untiring diligence, his unbending honesty and his excellent organization talent in business and industry.

With astounding tenacity Simon Eisenthal climbed the ladder of business success one rung at a time, beginning as a small official of the undertaking which in recognition of his proven capabilities and his dedicated service finally accepted him a part owner. And so, today Simon Eisenthal owns stock in other large undertakings including Tabacalern Nationale.

The business success of our Zionist oriented fellow countryman expressed itself in his generosity and in his general social accomplishments as well as his in contributions to our National Fund. These praiseworthy activities earned Simon Eisenthal and his wife great respect and a high social position in the most prominent circles in Caracas.

EP

*

Samuel, Milo Gabe, Dr.: born August 16, 1886 in Czernowitz; graduated from middle school and the University and in 1910 became Professor of classic Philology and in 1912 achieved his Doctor of Philosophy. In 1910 and following years professor at the State Gymnasium 1 in Czernowitz. Since 1920 lived in Vienna and taught at various institutions and Prae-University courses in classic philology. During the years 1928-1939 professor and second director at Chajesreal Gymnasium in Vienna. Since 1940 in Caracas Venezuela. Private Instructor in the classical and modern languages. Since 1949 professor of Greek and Latin at the philosophy faculty of the Universidad Central de Caracas and in the last years director of the Instituto de Filogia Clasica.

As university student a member of the Jewish National Academic Association Hasmonaea in Czernowitz. Also in Czernowitz and later in Vienna member and on the board of directors of many Jewish national and cultural committees and organizations. In Vienna member of the Herzl club, in Caracas for many years member of the board of directors of the Union Israelita and that of B'nai B'th Caracas. For several years president of the pedagogical board of the Jewish Colegio Moraly Luces-Herzl Bialik and presently honorary president of the Federacion Sionista d e Caracas. Publications: Over Greco-Roman metric and Aristophanes.

Fritzi (Finy) Jaegermann, born 1931 in Czernowitz, emigrated in 1947 to Paris where she studied fashion drawing at the Central University in Caracas Architecture from which she graduated with excellent grades, earning her degree in architecture. Thanks to her outstanding capabilities she was hired by the government for an important position in Caracas. Her original projects and plans for apartment houses and villas earned unstinted praise in professional circles. Fritzi Jaegermann entered her project in the completion for the planned Cultural Center and Synagogue for the Jewish Community of Caracas, a splendid building whose general design she strongly influenced. High praise by the officials fostered her natural talent for architecture, a fact which was also recognized by the press.

EP

*

Katz, David, born 1907 in Bukovina graduated from the Middle School in Czernowitz and emigrated at a young age to France where he continued his education in business, In 1943 he emigrated to France, where thanks to his business skills he was able to distinguish himself in the industrial sphere and he is presently active as a major force in the food and beverage business.

The interests of David Katz are multi-faceted. With the support of his admirable spouse Yolanda, nee Coriat, the couple is determined to meet all challenges of a business and Social nature. As chairman of the financial section of the Union Israelita as well as being amember of B'nai B'rith lodge and various local institutions David Katz distinguishes himself through his spontaneous and generous contributions. He is also involved in raising contributions for Magbit.

Mauricio Katz: Born in Czernowitz, has lived for 31 years in Venezuela in the wholesale business.

Thanks to his conciliatory character he was able to create a verry respected position for himself here. Anytime it was necessary to assist people with either money or as a go-between in dealing with the officials h was ready to help. His readiness to help was exemplary and this characteristic has made him beloved in all circles. His contributions to various social causes are generous and characteristic of the pronounced sense of charity of our esteemed fellow countryman Mauricio Katz.        

EP

*

Rachel Kern-Schmelzer; Born in Ilisesti (Bukovina), lived since 1939 at the side o her worthy husband Mr. Meilich Kern and her one son Heinz in Caracas where she has earned a very important social position. With incomparable zeal she dedicates herself to many social causes in the Jewish community as a result of which Mrs. Kern is the one and only woman to be elected as honorary president of the Jewish community.

Past president of Wizo and honorary president of Tormei Or (a support organization for the blind), at the present time Mrs. Kern is the president of Keren Kajemeth in Caracas, a position she manages with great success.

The program “Contribute Trees for Israel,” was run intensively and with visible success by Mrs. Kern. The planting of the “Bosque Bolivar” (Bolivar Forest) is also due to her initiative, an idea that was taken up by all circles and the leading officials with enthusiasm and which earned Mrs. Kern much attention in the Press and a formal reception given by the wife of the President of Venezuela, Mrs. Flamerich in the government palace where she was presented with a document expressing gratitude.

*

Dr. Max Knoll-Schaerf was born on July 18, 1892 as son of Feiwel Knoll and Gittel (nee Surkis) in Ispas. He graduated from the Law Faculties in Vienna and Berlin the Export Academy in Vienna .During his studies he was president of the High School Association of the university and the Worker Council of the Export High School in Vienna. Later he married Netty Schaerf (born in Straja),the daughter of the Bukoviner Hotel owner Meschulem Schaerf. The marriage took place in Bielitz. In Czernowitz Dr. Knoll-Schaerf was editor of the daily newspaper, The Day and the Jewish Illustrated Family Paper. During the years 1923-1933 he lived as a well-known businessman in Berlin. His Zionist activities reached back into the days of his youth. In Schlesien, Romania, Transnistria and Russia Dr. Schaerf worked tirelessly in word and deed for the Jewish cause. Over time he cared for 4000 refugees who owed their escape and rescue to him. As the Nazis enveloped all of Europe with terror, Dr. Schaerf succeeded in escaping to Caracas, where he continued his Zionist activities and provided inestimable services to the KKL. He was later president of the Zionist Federation in Caracas and the General Zionist Party in Venezuela. Afterwards, he returned to Berlin where after a one year stay in a hospital, he worked selflessly in the service of the Berlin Zionist organization which honored him in their “Golden Book” and elected him as their treasurer. His heart problems which he labored under since his deportation to Transnistria did not stop him from traveling to Israel with his wife in order to participate in the Zionist Congress in Jerusalem in 1960. During a speech that he was giving in Haifa in 1960 at a Chanukah festival he died suddenly. His earthly remains were interred in the Jerusalem cemetery on December 18, 1960.

*

Isak Kohn born in Czernowitz, descended from a religious family whose patriarch, the deceased businessman, Wolf Kohn was also well known as a Talmudic scholar in orthodox circles. Because of his deeply based knowledge and his acuteness, the late Wolf Kohn had often been called upon to act as a mediator and his judgments were always just and wise.

Isak Kohn, a worthy descendent of his blessed father whose virtues he had inherited was a true son and is equally true to his people to whom he feels bound with body and soul. Isak Kohn gives money to Israel on his own initiative. He puts in his full measure without seeking recognition. weather it as chairman of Magbit or by inviting the delegates to come together in his house to formulate plans for the collection of funds. In recognition of his dedicated work for our people and Israel, he was personally invited by the president {of Israel} to be honored at the celebration of the 10-Ten Yom Haazmauth. At this point we should not omit mentioning that the positive position taken by the delegation from Venezuela at the historical session of the UN where the creation of the state of Israel was discussed was influenced by Isak Kohn and his friends. There is no institution that didn't have Isak Kohn as a initiator and one of the founders. Three decades ago at the time of his immigration to Venezuela, there were just a few Ashkenazi; only after this group became larger did I. Kohn together with some of his friends seize the initiative to found the officially recognized Union Israelita, to which he was repeatedly elected as director. The gradual growth of the Jewish community in Caracas, partially due to the events in Europe made the need for a school for the increasing number of young people urgent and again, it was Isak Kohn along with others who led in the construction of the Herzl-Bialik School. In order to forge a tighter bond among his fellow countrymen and like-minded people who emigrated from other countries in order to fight the threat of assimilation of the younger element Isak Kohn founded the B'nai B'rith Lodge in Venezuela which he was the first president of.

Also unforgettable are the actions taken by Isak Kohn in 1939 when in a brief period of time, two groups of 165 and 85 Jews trying to escape Nazi persecution were rejected by all the South and Central American countries. Thanks to his relationships with the officials and with the help of a highly respected lawyer and personal guarantees of settlement in Venezuela, the refugees were saved .Also praiseworthy is his activity at the side of his wife in other social institutions like Joint, Gemilath Chesed, etc. Finally, we can say that Isak Kohn's life path was in the best Jewish traditions. He was ready to help and was not intoxicated by his riches and avoided all publicity. Father of two student sons and two married daughters – one of his son-in-laws is a doctor and the other a professor at the Technical High School in Caracas- the Kohns enjoy the greatest respect and are treasured by all.

*

Dr.Philsophy Marianne Kohn-Becker. Marianne Kohn-Becker should be recognized as one of the most notable personalities among the Jewish youth of Caracas,

She is the daughter of Abraham (Mote) and Anna Kohn, nee Wacher of Czernowitz, a notable couple at the center of Jewish affairs in Caracas who gave their children a nationally oriented education {Zionist}.She earned her PhD in the Central University of Caracas with such distinction that the president of Venezuela awarded this upward striving scientist a multiple year scholarship to allow her to continue her studies at the universities in Philadelphia and London and after she successfully completed her studies at these schools, he decided to entrust her with the position of director of the philosophy faculty in Caracas. With outstanding success the young physician and mother of a child managed this responsible position with all its associated challenges and consequences such as administrative planning, and pure scientific work and conferences and lectures to the astonishment of all her friends and with well-deserved respect from her fellow workers.

E.P.

*

Samuel Kula. Born in Rarancze (District Czernowitz) in 1912, son of the estate owner Josef Kula, he was active for a long time in the banking business (East Bank and Commercial Bank). The parents were murdered by Romanian soldiers in Czudyn in 1941. Since 1948 he lives in Caracas. In 1958, he was elected president of the Jewish Community. Under his leadership a cultural center was built in which all branches of Jewish activity, encompassing cultural, national, social and religious interests took place. The main office of Union Israelita in Caracas was housed there. Also housed there are the community synagogue, and a youth-social and cultural center, sport and social rooms as well as study halls. Mr. Kula holds his honorary position with considerable skill and enjoys the sympathy of the entire Jewish population of Caracas. He is a member of the B'nai B'rith lodge, the Rotary Club and many charitable organizations. Together with his brother Leo Kula he leads a very large jewelry business.

Moritz Neumann and Mrs. Regina Neuman nee Walzer. This couple who came from Czernowitz has lived in Venezuela for more than 30 years and can be counted among the first Ashkenazi to settle in Caracas.

After overcoming many difficulties, Moritz and Regina Neumann, because of their untiring efforts succeeded in the course of years as business people and earned great respect in the Jewish community. Moritz Neumann was involved in the creation of all the Ashkenazi institutions that developed over the past 30 years. So, as past vice president of Union Israelita, as long year finance manager of the Herzl Bialik School, as co-founder of Chewrah Kadischa with a separate cemetery for the Ashkenazi, as co-founder of the B'nai B'rith Lodge in Caracas, as past director of Keren Kajemeth as well as an enthusiastic fellow worker in the Magbit action he did more than his share.

Similarly, Mrs. Regina Neumann participated in the founding of many social institutions such as Bikur Cholim and Wizo, as well as being a member of the building committee of the orphanage constructed in Holon (Israel).

For years, vice president of Wizo in Caracas, Regina Neumann who was herself childless stood in the front ranks of the socially active women in Venezuela and was always concerned everywhere help was needed to deliver this help, mostly from her own resources.

*

Max Rendel. Born 1904 in Bojan, graduated from the Volks und Buergerschule [Peoples' and Citizens' school} in Vienna, the Teachers' Academy and the Business Academy in Czernowitz. During his student time, he was for many years Senior of the Business Fraternity Jordania; until, 1940 he was also athletic advisor in Maccabee Czernowitz; he was an valued official at the Czernowitz Os tbank {East Bank}. In the years 1939 to 1944 with the exception of the Russian year (1940) he was director of the refrigeration and slaughter house, Paserea in Novosielitza, where he made Romanian friends who later saved him and his family from deportation. In Novosielitza he was president of Maccabee {sports organization for Jewish youth} and Commissioner for Hachschara {Hachschara is a Hebrew word meaning “preparation” or in this case, preparation for emigrating to the British mandate of Palestine} whose members came from all of Romania. In 1938 he visited Eretz {Hebrew for “the land of”} Israel for the last time accompanied by Chaluzim {early settlers of Palestine} members of Maccabee. Since 1948, he has lived in Venezuela together with his family. His wife is the sister of Dr. Nathan Wiznitzer who is the director of the woman's' clinic in Chedera and is well known in Israel. In Caracas, Max Rendel is a member of the B'nai B'rith lodge and he is actively involved in all the Jewish institutions. He owns a Jewelry store in the city.

*

Moritz Wiesner. When we speak of prominent members of the Bukoviner in Caracas, we must not forget to mention Moritz Wiesner and his wife Else, nee Morgenstern, both from Czernowitz.

Moritz Wiesner, born in 1907 in Czernowitz starting in his youth dedicated himself to gymnastics inspired by the ideals of Zionism. At the age of 14 he joined Haschomer Hazair and later the Hechawer and in 1927 he was co-founder of Gordonia in Romania. Corresponding to his decisive nature, he not only aspired to reach his goals, but to exceed them and in 1932 he emigrated to Palestine where he became a member of the Kvuzah Gordonia in Chedera (the present day kibbutz Massadah0 in Emek Hejarden) in order to continue the work begun in the Galuth (the lands of exile} and in this way personally helping to realize the desired goal of Zionism. Pressing family conditions led him to emigrate to Caracas in Venezuela where despite health problems he has worked tirelessly for decades in all the cultural and charitable organizations and everywhere it is possible to help his fellow man.

With the founding of the state of Israel the necessity for Jewish centers in the lands of exile to help propagate Hebrew, the language that would unite all the Jewish people became obvious. and so, Wiesner, along with other of a like mind founded Brith Haiwri Olamith (Chug Haiwri) in Caracas which he was president of for many years.

Moritz Wiesner next became director of the Culture Section.

EP

Vienna

At the time of the existence of the Monarchy among the nationalities living in Bukovina, it was the Jews who had the largest number of business and cultural connections in Vienna. After the year 1918, many Bukoviner, despite their notorious love for their homeland did not return to the land now occupied by the Romanians, and remained preferentially in Vienna. Only after the annexation of Austrian by Germany which started the National Socialist terror did many rescue themselves by fleeing overseas. The majority however perished in the concentration camps.

In today's Austria, especially in Vienna, live many former Bukoviner who keep up a lively relationship among themselves and with friends and relatives in Israel. They occupy a place in the world of business, are active in the professions and also play a significant role in the life of the Jewish community. Dr. Emil Maurer[1], born in Kuty on the border of Bukovina is the president of the Jewish community in Vienna who under his leadership successfully involve themselves in the building up of their institutions. Other Bukoviner living in Vienna to the best of our knowledge, are: Jakob Abraham[2], former owner of the Eminescu Publishing House in Czernowitz, Paula Adlersberg, widow of Dr. Siegfried Adlersberg; Paul Adlersberg; David Achner; Mrs. Thea Aufgabel, widow of Dr. Aufgabel; Zonin Alper; Ludwig Amster,wholesaler and industrialist, brother of Dr. Heinrich Amster[3]; Leo Bernstein, businessman; wholesaler Wilhelm Bendet; Hugo Billig; the well-known urologist Dr. Heinz Berger; Kurt Blaukopf, music writer, Storozynetz; Dr. Josef David, businessman; Karl Dauber, businessman; the industrialist Max Delfiner, Attorney Dr. Rudolf Eugen Dreiling; the merchants Bruno and Moritz Eger; Attorney Dr. Maximilian Eltes; Mrs. Dr. N. Eisinger, widow of Dr. Eisinger (Czernowitz); Engler & Segenreich, rubber goods; Abraham Friedmann, the owner of the Casanova Bar; Attorney, Dr. Karl Falkenflug; Leo Gelernter; Engineer Karl Geller; Leiku Geller; Eduard and Mitzi Gininger, industrialists and well known philanthropists; Dr. Martin Gotlieb; Dr. Adolf Glaubach; H. Glueckstern; Elizabeth Goetter, Fritz Gruenberg; Norbert Haber; SigmundHorowitz; Isak Heitner; Dr. Wolf Herzberg, the longtime President of the Vienna Jewish community; Otto Jakob; Attorney Dr. WilhelmJakob; Oskar Jaegermann (wood exporter) Isidor Klueger; Leopold Katz; Dr. Lampert Korn, spa doctor in Bad Gastein; Estate owner Leon Korn; Dr. Kohn, doctor from Czernowitz; Severin Knebel; Mrs. Kinsbrunner; Karl Korn, merchant; Dr. Heinrich Kudisch; R.A. Dr. Siegmund Last[4]; Court Advisor widow A. Last; R.A. Dr. Lechner; Dr. Otto Luttinger; Pharmacist Siegfried Mandelbaum; R.A. Dr. Menzer; R. A. Dr. Carl Meth; Dr. Martin Meth; Maximilian Meth; Dr. Jakob Morgenstern; Markus Nagler Dr. Nagler, physician; Wholesale Businessman Manole Neuberger; Lilly Ohling; J. Perez businessman; Bruno Roll; Isak Rauchwerger; K. Rosenheck; J. Rosner, businessman; Siegfried Rosner, businessman; Martin Ruhalter, businessman; Dr. Joseph Sachsenberg; Mrs Klara Salzberger; Medical Advisor Dr. Herman Salzmann[5]; Leo Sauerquell; Dr. Aron Schapira; R.A. Dr. David Schapira; Elias Schapira[6]; wood exporter; Dr. Joseph Schapira; Saul Schapira; Julius Scharfstein; the brothers Ady and Paul Schaechter; Dr. Dorian Schaeffler; Benno Schaeffler, member of Buwak; Dr. Markus Schlaefer; Industrialist Salo Schmidt (Ursus A.G.); Samuel Schnarch; Chief Medical Adviser Dr. Marcell Schnarch, Primaruius at the Jewish Hospital; Dr. Maximilian Schwarz, Engineer Igo Schwarzkopf, brother of Karl Schwarzkopf[7]; Berthold Sobel[8]; R.A. Dr. Heinrich Sokal; Dr.Wilhelm Stecher; Heinrich Stein; R.A. Dr. Hans Sternberg; Mrs. Jolan Stroh; Dr. Josef Stern; Court Councilor Dr. Emil Tuchman, Chief doctor of the Vienna District Health Insurance Plan; Medical Doctor Albert Tyndel; Journalist Engineer S. Welt; Dr. Gottfried Weidenfeld; Saul Weissmann; R.A. Picki Weintraub; Mrs. Gusti Weich; Wilhelm Weinhaeusser; Mrs.OLGR Steffi Weiss ; Dentist Weiser; ProfessorTappler; Lumber businessman Zloczower etc.


Notes

  1. Dr. Emill Maurer, born 1884 in Kuty, the son of a religion teacher, studied clock making, then came to Vienna where he lived in a Jewish apprentice home where he learned the trade of metal stamping. Joined the Social Democratic Party, took private middle school courses and graduated, and in 1911 joined the law faculty at the Vienna University. During the First World War he advanced to officer rank became doctor and later attorney. In the National Socialist era he was imprisoned at Dachau and Buchenwald. When he was freed, he went to London. Since 1948 he has been vice president and then president of the board of directors of the Jewish community in Vienna. Dr. Maurer is also president of the organization representing all the Jewish communities in Austria, the Jewish World Congress and chairman of the Austrian league for the United Nations. Return
  2. Jakob Abraham; After 1918 publisher of the Cernowitzer Allgemeine Newspaper, founded in Czernowitz in 1893 by Dr. Philipp Menzel; in autumn 1918 founded the publishing house Eminescu and left the editing of the Allgemeine to Arnold Schwarz and later Dr. A. Niederhoffer continued to edit the Allgemeine under the Romanian regime; lived in Vienna. Return
  3. Dr. Heinrich Amster (1874-1956), fellow worker of Herzl. Doctor in Vienna (Sanatorium of Dr. Fuerth) and at the State Hospital in Czernowitz, military doctor and later in the Romanian army chief doctor of the military police; director of the outpatient clinic in Suceava; died in Vienna. Return
  4. Siegmund Last, Dr.; lawyer and author; as a young man worked for several Czernowitz daily newspapers; active in the sport club Maccabee; wrote lyrics for the Maccabee march (melody by Professor Josefowicz); publisher of the two Hakoah{Jewish sports club founded in Austria by two Zionists} anniversary publications and. the Gastspiele “Hakoah Vienna” in Czernowitz; founding member of the academic organization Heatid and the club Massada in Czernowitz whose reactivation he led in Vienna; Israel correspondent for various agencies abroad; Lives in Vienna. Return
  5. Dr. Hermann Salzmann, born 1894 in Czernowitz; Studied in Czernowitz and Vienna, in First World War decorated several times; in 1921 in Vienna awarded the title of Dr. of Homeopathy; went back to Czernowitz in the thirties; heroically active in fighting typhus in the Ukraine; lived 1944-1947 in Bucharest, came back to Vienna in 1948 where he worked as a doctor in the Rothschild hospital. Then worked as a gynecologist in the outpatient clinic of the Vienna health insurance company in the XII district where he still works today with success; because of special merit he was awarded the title of Medical Council by the president of the East Zone. Return
  6. Elias Schapira, born 1894 in Gurahumora; began as official for the wood industry Goetz in Galatz; in the wood industry as an owner; one of the founders of Poale Zion in Gurahumora (1918) {labor section of the Zionist movement} section leader of the Culture Section, officer in self-government of Jewish community in Vienna; president of Hakoah in Vienna; lives in Vienna. Return
  7. Dr. Karl Schwarzkopf (1906-1943) chief doctor in Jewish hospital in Czernowitz; was murdered in an “action” in Berezowka in 1943. Return
  8. Berthold Sobel, former manufacturer in Czernowitz; (Buwag), was an outstanding member of the Help Committee in Bucharest for Bukovina refugees in the years 1943 to 1948. His brother was the significant lawyer Dr. Emil Sobel in Czernowitz. Both are grandsons of the representative Benzion Weinstein from Galicia. Return

Comite de Ayudea Bucovina {Help Committee for Bukovina}. Changed to Cultural Society of Jewish Bukovina in 1958. Among the members there I
Bukovina Relief Organization
United Bukovina Association

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