Bornsztajn, the Rabbi Abraham-Benzion
Gold, (Kalai) Dovid
Gitler, Henya, Toba
Wicentowski (Gelbard), Bela
Warszawski (Sharvit), Mordekhai
Yoskowicz (Tron), Yeheil
Yemini (Kamelgarn), Shoshona
Rozencwajg, (Federman) Sonya
Photograph of Tuvya Borszykowski
Tuvya Borszykowski was born in Radomsk in 1914, the fifth son in a family who had been tailors for generations. After several years of kheder-learning, his father sat him down at the sewing table and thus the young man entered his earliest years in the atmosphere of the burden of earning a living and the necessity of making his way in life through his own strength.
At 15 Tuvya was already an active member in founding an organization of young Zionist-Socialist Workers and a year later he was a leader of an entire group in the organization. Two years later the
* In the 9th part of this book (Holocaust and Revenge), several chapters of his unpublished Memoirs and in addition (in the section Avengers and Guards) some excerpts from treatises, appreciations about his personality, which were published in Israel after his death (written by Moishe Basok, F. Heika, Nakhman Blumental, Haim Goldberg, Yitzhak Tabenkin, Melekh Rawicz, Tzvia Lubetkin, M. Najsztat).
organization imposed on him the assignment of breaching the anti-Zionist establishment that reigned then in the Needleworkers' Union of Jewish Tailors in the city, which he fulfilled. He was elected as vice president of the Union and there often agitated for the idea of Socialist-Zionism.
Tuvya became known in the city very quickly as an active community worker in a range of institutions and societies and as a cultural worker who with his own strength (he was self-taught) acquired learning and self-education in various areas. He was among the leadership of Freiheit, the Youth movement of Poalei-Zion Ts. S., and an active member of Hahalutz and in the League for Labor in Eretz-Yisroel, one of the most outstanding speakers at Zionist public meetings and beloved lecturers during internal party seminars (about Yiddish literature and history of the workers' movement). He was an active member of the managing committee of the Folkes-University and in the Sholom Aleichem Library and its last librarian. When the Germans occupied Radomsk, he and several comrades carried the contents of the library to a hiding place and right after the war transported the library to Warsaw for its disposition by the Zionist refugee institutions.
After he hid the library (Spring 1940), he was summoned by the central administrative body of Hahalutz and Dror (Freiheit) to Warsaw to join in the organization of the underground movement. His primary work was to organize seminars, to publish leaflets and to carry out cultural-educational lectures [in which he would act out the parts in question] among underground youth groups. At the beginning of 1942 he managed a Zionist-Halutz underground Hakhsorah group near Warsaw and immediately after that he returned to Warsaw and joined the ranks of the Jewish Fighters' Organization that was organized in the ghetto. He visited Radomsk several times on assignment from this combat organization and there attempted to organize a group of young people who would be ready to fight against the Germans.
Tuvya Borszykowski took part in the first combat action against the Germans in the Warsaw Ghetto in January 1943. During the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (April 1943) he fought in the ranks of the group that militarily fortified the Central District of the ghetto and he left the Ghetto with the remnant of this group through the underground sewers. During the Polish Revolt against the Germans in
Right after the liberation from the German occupation, he renewed his Zionist-Socialist activity among the survivors in Poland and called upon the surviving Jews to leave the accursed Europe and make aliyah to Eretz-Yisroel. In 1949, he himself emigrated to Eretz-Yisroel and immediately joined in the creation of the kibbutz for surviving Ghetto Fighters (Kibbutz Lohamei Hagetoat Ghetto Fighter's Kibbutz) in Galilee. He did various physical labor in the kibbutz and in the early years was occupied with communal cultural activities, chiefly recording and revising his important horrible memories so that they would serve as evidence for the coming generations. He was one of the founders of the Documentation Center named for the famous Ghetto poet Yitzhak Katznelson, which was built in Kibbutz Lohamei Hagetoat. The full collection of Tuvya's published writings and unpublished manuscripts is found in the Center.
The first grave that was dug in the newly created Kibbutz Lohamei Hagetoat was a fresh grave for the heroic Ghetto Fighter Tuvya Borszykowski, who was not defeated by the German murderers, who took revenge against them and gave up his flesh to the holy ground of the Land of Israel. A pity, a great pity that it was so premature
* The Holocaust Era memories of Tuvya Borszykowski are reflected in three published books: Lightning in January (1941-1942); Among Falling Walls (1943-1944); Spring in January (1945). Return
Haim Goldberg was born into a family of workers and men of the people. From his grandfather, Reb Mordekhai Skalke and father, both leading members of the Khevre Kadishe, he inherited his love of the Jewish worker and folk and he brought this love to the idea of Socialist-Zionism. Haim Goldberg founded and led various institutions for the young in the Zionist-Socialist spirit in his home town of Radomsk, was active in cultural and sports organizations, in K.K.L. and Keren Hisod and the like. Later in the Center of his party in Warsaw Haim Goldberg was the unelected but virtual representative of all of the party members who were in need of counsel or assistance as he was always ready to be of assistance to everyone.
It is self-evident that with his aliyah to Eretz-Yisroel (at the end of 1935), various workplaces were suggested to Haim Goldberg that expressed his capabilities, earnings and administrative experience. However, a person such as Haim Goldberg would not leave the way of Halutzish physical labor that he had enjoyed his whole life and believed correct. The first 3 years he worked as a common laborer on highway construction in the area of Haifa and a short time as a worker in the glass factory, Penizia.
In 1938 he joined the printing cooperative Ot in Haifa as a member, in which he was active in the course of 26 years. During that time he thoroughly studied the history and basis of the cooperative movement in Israel and grew accustomed to its ideological and organizational framework and was one of its prominent community workers and activist builders. His special concern for the social security and future of the members of the cooperative enterprise and their families carried him to the front rank of originators, founders and chief leaders of the special cooperative pension fund, Magen (Shield), in which he was active until the last day of his life.
A separate chapter of his life in Israel was his deep love of people that created for him a great circle of friends among all social strata, cultural leaders and community activists, politicians and academics, landsleit and co-workers, particularly for the common working man, for the man in the street. He was always ready to give support in every way. Therefore, he was beloved and esteemed everywhere.
The savage Holocaust arrived, the extermination of European Jewry and the Jews of Radomsk by the German Nazis. His heart and soul, his whole being was not only shocked by the cruel extermination process, but with his life's path of inspiring and organizing, he together with certain other fellow landsleit took to rescue activities for those individual survivors among his landsmen, both when they were still in Radomsk or in the D.P. camps, or on the way to Eretz-Yisroel, and later when they had arrived in Israel. Haim did not rest. He did everything in order to help them. In addition to his widespread communal duties he also took upon himself, literally with love, the not easy task of intervention with institutions and individuals on behalf of the new immigrants. In addition, he assisted in creating the Interest-Free Loan Fund in Tel-Aviv and Haifa that actually helped out his Radomsker landsleit in settling in their new home.
The Jews in Radomsk were destroyed; they were no longer present. It was necessary to erect a headstone for them; one must immortalize all those who had lived and had an effect on Jewish Radomsk in a Yizkor Book a gigantic task. Haim Goldberg took this sacred work upon himself and in the course of years indefatigably collected material about Radomsk in general and about Jewish Radomsk in particular.
It is impossible to comprehend the effort, intellectual and physical, that he made in collecting such a colossal amount of material, in writing and in photographs, for this Yizkor Book. Here, too, he showed his intellectual level; he embraced everyone with his full soul, not omitting even one layer of Jewish society in Radomsk. He searched for every trace, every piece of information about ancient Radomsk and collected, literally, a treasury of documents about the spiritual personalities of the Radomsker Rabbinic Dynasty, and also about every other social or economic group.
Even for those who worked with him in this area, it was a surprise to see the great spiritual strength that accompanied the search and collection of documents and newspapers, in archives and from among private collectors. Haim knew and understood that everything must be collected and immortalized, he separated everything and created an appropriate section for each theme and searched for appropriate people who could adapt these sections.
Fate treated this great and gentle man cruelly. He became very ill. However, even then, the severe physical pain did not hold him back from his sacred mission of setting down and of publishing the book.
Haim Goldberg, the great man and Jew, on whom weighed the responsibility of immortalizing Jewish life in his birthplace, Radomsk, alas, did not have the privilege to see his work completed. Let this book serve, too, as a scared memorial for his dear soul.
Haim and Toba-Henya Gitler
(Photographs of Haim and Toba-Henya Gitler)
(Text in Hebrew)
(Photograph of Yosef Haze)
Yosef ben (son of) Shimon Haze was born in Radomsk in 1905. As a youth he already stood in the struggle against anti-Semitic acts in the city and in school, too.
In 1926 he cuts short his studies in the gimnazim Zielinski and makes aliyah to Eretz-Yisroel with the Hazomir Hatzair movement. He joins the Tel-Yosef Kibbutz, where he works as a farmer. Then he builds his own farm in Tsofit and lastly specializes in reviving old citrus orchards and planting new orchards as an official of the agency.
He died suddenly while buying plants for an orchard in the Galilee (the 7th of May 1962).
(Text in Hebrew)
(Photograph of Sarah Dobner-Zylberman)
(Text in Hebrew)
(Photograph of Shoshona )
Yakov and Rachel Sofer
(Photographs of Yakov and Rachel Sofer)
(Text in Hebrew)
(Photograph of Henek Kalka)
Henek Kalka was born in Radomsk in 1897 into a Hasidic family. He was already an active member of S.S. (Seimist Socialists) in his young years and later he was a sympathizer of the Communists. He left for Eretz-Yisroel in 1920.
Arriving in the land, he joined Histadrut as a member and was an active worker in Agudat-Poalei-Ha'ets (Wood Workers Union). He was always among the first and most stubborn fighters for securing and bettering working conditions and distinguished himself with his ideas and actions when the workers were on strike.
In 1923, a strike broke out at Krinicin's (the present mayor in Ramat-Gan, who at that time had a carpenter shop in Tel Aviv). The workers decided to hold a meeting at the uncompleted buildings. When the English appeared in order to disrupt the meeting, Henek lowered the gate that separated the area and thus barred the way of the English policemen on horseback. While the English police commandant Riks stopped, Henek Kalka ran to him and threw him off his horse. A great riot occurred and the workers ran away, Henek with them.
In 1927 H. Kalka became independent and self employed. Then he became active in Hitachadut Baalei Melakha (Association of Craftsmen) in Tel Aviv. He organized the cabinetmakers so that they would be a substantial power.
In 1929/31 the economic situation in the country became very difficult. The cabinet makers remained without work and many of them literally did not have anything to eat. H. Kalka, good-hearted by nature, provided great help to his needy comrades then. He gave in secret, anonymously. Goodness and a willingness to help always accompanied his way.
In 1936 when the Italian-Abyssinian War broke out and the situation became worse, H. Kalka took the initiative to care for his fellow unemployed cabinetmakers. A year later (1937), when the situation became even worse, H. Kalka was elected to the Central Committee of Hitachadut Baalei Melakha. He filed a proposal to create a cooperative store so that the members would be able to buy their products at cheaper prices. With his initiative, the co-op was created and no one left from there with empty hands. H. Kalka said to give everyone products they needed and he would pay for them.
He also decided to create a loan institution and, with his initiative, an interest-free loan fund was created that later became the General Fund of Hitachadut Baalei Melakha.
H. Kalka cooperated in other areas of social assistance, too. Thus, for example, when people received various fines, and had to serve time in jail because they did not have the money to pay the fines, H. Kalka would personally go the person owed the money and speak and reason with him so that he would waive the fines. In many cases, H. Kalka literally made a sacrifice for the arrestee and many times paid the fines of strangers out of his own pocket in order to free them from jail.
In 1952 H. Kalka proposed that a new building be built for Histadrut and thanks to his initiative, the building of Heykhal haMelakha (Translators's note: literally Palace of Craftsmanship) began. The building carpenters' section contributed 15 thousand pounds for this purpose and Kalka took care that the building would be well and beautifully finished, just as if it were his own home.
H. Kalka was not only a good community worker, but a good man, father and grandfather, too.
His many-faceted and efficient community work was interrupted on the 5th of May 1958. The building carpenters have perpetuated his name by founding a special loan fund that carries the name Henek Kalka Fund.
(Photograph of Dovid Krojze)
(Text in Hebrew)
Dovid Krojze was born in Radomsk in 1890 to middle-class religious parents. At first, he received a traditional Jewish education and when he was 13 he began studying quilting. His older brother Hershel showed him the way to learning a trade (printing).
Dovid Krojze took his first step in life at the time when the political-communal life in Eastern Europe was fermenting with the revolutionary events of 1905. This naturally had an effect, too, on the Jewish population in general and on the young workers. He was very quickly drawn into the life of the Socialist Party, became active in all actions, strikes, discussions, secret meetings and self-defense. When Radomsk became too crowded for him and politically unsafe, he departed for Lodz, to which a stream of thousands of Jewish workers from the entire province were led.
Dovid Krojze worked at his trade in Lodz and was very active in party work. He was persecuted for this by various police tricks. However, he did not surrender. After the suppression of revolutionary ferment of 1905, when those who were saved from the gallows or Siberia came back to their homes, Dovid Krojze came back to Radomsk, too.
The organized and class-conscious Jewish youth created
After the Balfour Declaration, when thousands of Jewish young people are drawn through various paths and detours to Eretz-Yisroel, Dovid Krojze and his young wife are drawn there, too. In 1921/22 they arrive in Eretz-Yisroel, as members of Zeiri-Zion in Radomsk. Here Dovid Krojze did not belong to those for whom absorption in the country came easily. The years of adjusting himself to the realities of Eretz-Yisroel were difficult, very difficult. He was weak in health and in addition he had a wife and small children; he suffered through the difficult years of unemployment. He suffered physically and materially, but he did not give in spiritually. Once, the bridges under me are burned, he did not think about, G-d forbid, returning to gulas (exile). On the contrary, he made an effort to bring his family here. His belief in Zionism, in the revival of the Jewish people in its land, strengthened still more and more in his heart, despite his personal situation.
The number of Radomskers in Eretz-Yisroel becomes greater; the organization of landsleit is created. Dovid Krojze becomes a member of the managing committee and for many years was one of the active members of the organization and active in the central committee of the Interest-Free Loan Fund.
In his last years he dedicated himself to the work of this Yizkor Book in addition to donating his very interesting memories that will serve as a mirror for the former life in Jewish Radomsk and Poland.
Alas, death cut short his life and he did not live to see this Book of Memories.
Tuvya and Sarah Rubinsztajn (Text in Hebrew)
(Photograph of Rokhma Rubinsztajn)
(Photograph of Tuvya and Sarah Rubinsztajn)
(Photograph of Dov-Berl Rozensztajn)
(Text in Hebrew)
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