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The History of the Jews of Latvia {cont.}

 

After the Second World War

A. Statistics and Demographics

At the time when the Red Army freed most of the Latvian territory, the number of Jewish survivors in this land was extremely small, no more than two hundred. A year later, some of the survivors who had been imprisoned in the concentration camps in Germany returned to Latvia. More and more Jews of Latvia who had been evacuated or who had fled into the interior of the Soviet Union in the summer of 1941 began to return. As a result of this, the number of Jews in Latvia in 1946 reached 5,000 and a year later it reached 8,000. The great majority of them concentrated in Riga; the remainder settled in Daugavpils or in other towns of Latgale; some went to other regions. The return of the evacuated persons and of the refugees continued afterwards. By the end of the 1950's about 2,500 of the surviving Jewish prisoners who were exiled to Siberia or to other regions across the Soviet Union returned to Latvia, some with permission and some without.

In parallel with the return of the former residents of Latvia, thousands of Jewish families (the Hasidim of Chabad were among these) began to come to this land. This was within the framework of the great wave of long-term Soviet citizens who eagerly moved here with the sanction of the authorities. As a result of this, the total number of Jews in Latvia increased considerably. According the general census of the population of the Soviet Union in 1959, their number reached 36,592 (1.6% of the overall population). This number did not change significantly in the course of the 11 years that followed. According to the population census that was taken in 1970 in the Soviet Union, the number of Jews in Latvia was 36,680 (again 1.6% of the overall population). The fraction of this community who had been former long-term Jewish citizens of Latvia was surely no more than one third. In the course of time the fraction of former long-term Jewish Latvians decreased even further. This was brought about by the awakening of the nationalist movement among the Jews of Latvia, and an increased immigration to the land of Israel as a result of this. This trend continues up to the present day.

Alongside the continued reduction in the fraction of former Jewish Latvians, there was also a continued reduction in the number who were interested in Jewish culture in general and in speakers of Yiddish in particular. For example, at the time of the population census in 1959, 48% of those registered as Jews declared that their mother tongue was Yiddish. In the census of 1970 only 46% declared this. One can assume that this trend continues to this day. There is no doubt that the home language as well as the everyday language of most of the Jews of Latvia is Russian. At the same time, the trend continues for Jews to abandon their residence in small villages and to concentrate almost exclusively in the large cities, mostly in Riga. As a result of the awakening of the nationalist movement among the Jews of Latvia (especially those who came here as clerks and professionals in the service of the government and of the economy) there was a relative reduction in the number of mixed marriages which apparently reached its peak in the mid 1960's. At that time, the fraction of mixed marriages reached 36% of all marriages involving Jews.

 

B. Aftermath of the Nazi Conquest

During the period that followed immediately after Latvia was freed, the military government extended an attitude of sympathy, understanding for the grief, and provision of assistance to the tiny group of Jewish survivors. Later on the general public extended a similar attitude to them. The survivors were helped especially by the Jewish officers and soldiers who came here within the framework of the Latvian army divisions and other military units. The majority of these soldiers learned at this stage of the awful catastrophe that befell the people of their nation and in many cases befell their near and dear ones, their families and their relatives. Up to this point many held hopes that perhaps? maybe? in spite of everything? It is no surprise that heart rending experiences awaited Jewish soldiers and returning evacuees who attempted to find family members or to visit their former homes. But even those who did find some lost acquaintance were far from elated because the meeting was inevitably accompanied by mourning. Those who returned to their former homes were greeted with very mixed feelings by the Latvians who were now living there. The returning soldiers and evacuees developed feelings of disappointment and deep resentment bordering on enmity towards their Latvian neighbors, since in many cases it was they who murdered their dear ones and inherited their property. In some instances, the feelings of disappointment and frustration lead to conflicts and outbursts of Jews against Latvian citizens who were suspected of murder, or who showed a degree of hostility and arrogance towards the Jews. In most cases, the local authorities tended to suppress such phenomena in the name of law and order and even demonstrated open sympathy for such Latvians on several occasions. This atmosphere did not help the surviving Jews who tried to persuade the law-courts to issue orders for the return of the property that belonged to them or to their family members and was now in the hands of Latvians.

Nevertheless, the Latvian Soviet government spared no effort to expose and to condemn the crimes committed by the Nazi regime of conquest together with their local collaborators. This was about the crimes against the local civilian population and also against the Jews. A special committee appointed by the government was established “to investigate and to determine the extent of the murders committed by the fascist German conquerors and their helpers in the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic.” The committee operated for nearly a year right from the start of the process of freeing the Latvian territory (from 23 August 1944 until 27 July 1945). At the same time regional and urban committees were set up for the same purpose, each to investigate the events in its own jurisdiction. According to these investigations 314,000 persons were murdered in Latvia (this number included about 40,000 children). About 100,000 of them were Latvian citizens. The committees also found that 16 ghettoes existed in the Latvian territory during the period of the Nazi conquest as well as 48 prisons and 23 detention camps. The committee revealed many details about the fate of the Jews of Riga, Daugavpils and other places.

The trial of 8 German war-criminals was opened in a military court in the Riga region on the 26th January 1946. These Germans occupied positions of the highest rank during the time of the German conquest. The most senior among them was the general Friedrich Jeckeln, who was the supreme commander of the security police in Ostland. Among other things he planned and supervised the large “Aktion” for the Riga ghetto of December 1941. The court found him and 6 of his accomplices guilty of serious crimes against the civilian population of Ostland and against prisoners of war of the Soviet Union. The court sentenced all seven to death, and they were hanged in Riga on the 3rd of February that year.

For political and other reasons, the Nazi conquest and its consequences quickly fell from its status as one of the subjects with priority in the agenda of the rulers. Even the Jewish population lost interest. This was apparently due to the fact that most of them, as mentioned above, were Jews who arrived from Leningrad, the Ukraine, and from other regions of the Soviet Union. Initially, the newly arrived Jews had very limited interaction with the Jews who had long-term ties with Latvia. The religious Jews, with the Chabad community among them, were an exception to this rule. They integrated to some extent into the local community life, especially in the field of religion. This was not the case for the cultural activities in the Yiddish language, such as drama circles, choirs and literature evenings. These activities were operated by artists, writers and cultural activists who survived from the pre-war generation. In the course of time this activity waned, mainly because the rulers disapproved of it. In fact, the efforts of the Jews on this subject failed. In a similar way, their efforts to get public property restored to them were fruitless. This was property that was confiscated by the rulers during the Nazi conquest. An example was the building of the Jewish theatre in Riga. But thanks to their superior education, their knowledge of languages and their professional qualifications, the Jews were able to acquire relatively good jobs and their economic status improved from year to year. In contrast to this, the Jews were not able to advance themselves in the political and social planes (not even those who were party members) except up to the intermediate level. Even though the Jews made up 1.6% of the population, as stated above, only 88 Jews were elected to the local “Soviets,” this being 0.42% of the elected members in these institutions. In 1961 this fraction even fell to 0.35%.

 

C. The Nationalist Awakening and its Consequences

A group of people who had belonged in the past to Zionist movements, HaShomer HaTsair Netsah and Beitar, began to get organized in Latvia at the end of the Second World War. These were people who knew each other, either from before or during the war, or who met subsequently in the course of their residence in the Soviet Union or their military service in the Latvian division. The connections were particularly strong between former members of HaShomer HaTsair Netsah, whose central group gathered in Tashkent as mentioned above. This group was led by Shmuel (Mula) Yaffe and by Yaakov (Yake) Yankelowitz (Yanai) who had been guides (madrichim) at the Netsah branch in Riga (see above). During the war, they and their friends sought ways of crossing the border into Afghanistan, and from there into the land of Israel, but were unsuccessful at this. After their return to Latvia, the members continued to rally around Shmuel Yaffe, with the hope that the possibility of immigration to the land of Israel would open up for them.

This situation changed considerably as a result of the secret exit into Poland and to Italy of Shmuel Yaffe (he decided and took the initiative entirely on his own) in July 1945. He held meetings there with the Israeli representatives (“The Center for the Diaspora”) and the “Illegal Immigration” organization. While the latter wanted to transfer him immediately to the land of Israel, he insisted on returning immediately to the Soviet Union, intending to set up an underground movement with the purpose of bringing immigrants from there into the land of Israel. In this fashion, the remaining Zionists in Latvia joined up with the general “Illegal Immigration” movement at the end of 1945.

During the course of about one year, nearly 400 people managed to get out of Latvia through this organization. (The people were mainly from Riga, Dvinsk and its surroundings.) The majority of these people successfully reached the land of Israel within a year or two. The organization completely ceased its activity in September 1946 when Shmuel Yaffe and Yaakov Yanai were arrested. Actually, by that time Latvia had been emptied of Zionist activists and candidates who were willing to immigrate to the land of Israel immediately and by any means. For these and other reasons, there was almost no further immigration to the land of Israel for many years starting from this point in time.

Interest in Jewish subjects increased gradually but substantially within the Jewish community of Latvia from the end of the 1950's and in the years that followed. The foundation and driving force for this awakening was centered on the people of the Zionist camp who returned from exile in the depths of the Soviet Union and also on youth and young Jewish people who grew up and received their education in the context of postwar Latvia. Another factor was the appearance of anti-Jewish expressions in Latvia. In 1962 the Jews were aroused to respond vigorously against the tendency of the authorities to play down the significance of the fact that the Jews were such a numerically large fraction of the victims of the Nazi conquest of Latvia. This response received its practical expression in the restoration of the mass graves of the Jews at the sites of mass murder during the Nazi conquest, for example at Rombuli near Riga and other places throughout Latvia. After this effort brought results, and after lengthy struggles with the authorities, many activists dedicated themselves to the maintenance of these graves, and they even arranged large-scale gatherings of mourning several times a year.

Encouraged by the results of the struggle (which were achieved to some extent due to the objective conditions that existed in the Soviet Union in the period after the death of Stalin) the activists also took part in the struggle against the refusal of the authorities to issue permits to those who wished to immigrate to Israel. The struggle reached its peak in 1971, three years after the Six Days War. This event substantially encouraged and magnified the nationalist awakening of the Jews of the Soviet Union with the Jews of Latvia among them. This struggle ended with substantial achievements. It was the only struggle in the Soviet Union that took place dramatically in the meeting halls of the central institutions in Moscow. And indeed, the ministry of the interior began to issue permits for leaving, in unprecedented numbers. This can be seen from the following table, if we compare them with the parallel number of Israeli visas that were issued in Moscow by the Embassy of Holland. At that time the Israeli government was represented by Holland.

Table 12. Requests for immigration to Israel by Latvian Jews
and the number of Israeli visas issued to them in the years 1964 1980

Period Requests for immigration Number of Israeli visas issued
  Annual
total
Monthly
average
Annual
total
Monthly
average
1968 - 1971 8,279 208 3,154 79
1972 2,250 187 2,135 178
1973 1,103 92 1,370 114
1974 478 40 671 56
1975 349 30 375 31
1976 356 30 363 31
1977 637 53 537 45
1978 1,843 154 834 69
1979 3,018 199 2,344 221
1980 2,021 171 1,370 114

From this table we see that the number of Israeli visas as well as the number of persons exiting for Israel did indeed rise considerably in the years 1972-1973. This was a short time after the great struggle that the Jews of Latvia carried out in Moscow. The trend is most apparent in the monthly average for those years. After the Yom Kippur War [1973] the yearly number of visas (and the number of persons exiting for Israel) falls for a period of three years, and thereafter the number rises again. It reached a peak in 1979. In those years, there was also a fall in the number of those who were refused permission to immigrate to Israel - “refuseniks” as they were called. In January 1977 for example, the number of “refuseniks” together with their families amounted to 117 persons. In the course of that year, 41 of them were given permission to leave, but 24 additional persons were refused permission to leave. In January 1978 the number fell to 8. In spite of all of this, a small number of “refuseniks” (such as Joseph Mendelowitz) or their family members are still putting up a bitter struggle with the Latvian authorities who refuse to grant them exit permits to this very day.

At this point we should note that the 13,153 Jews who left Latvia for Israel constituted 35.8% of all the Jews who lived in that land. Apparently, about 11,000 of them actually came to Israel. If we add to this the number who left there afterwards, as well as those who left in the framework of the “Illegal Immigration,” we can conclude that during the 40 years since Latvia was freed from the Nazi conquest, at least 12,000 of them immigrated to Israel. Most of the Jews who live in Latvia today are Jews who either arrived there or who were born there after the Second World War.

 

Sources

Archives

Yad VaShem archives, TR-10/597, The trial of Maikovskis Boleslav, Eichelis Albert, Puntulis Harold
Yad VaShem archives, TR-10/760, The trial of Diedrich Emil (1941-1944)
Yad VaShem archives, JR-10/805, The trial of Grauel Ehrhard, Einsatzgruppe EK, A. 2, 1941-1942
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Decrees for the closure of institutions (issued by the Soviet regime in Latvia 1940)
1940. g. 12. decembri saskanā ar likumu par bezpelnas biedribām un to savienibām (Lik. Kr. 1938g. 49) slēdzu sādas biedribas: …
    Likvidācijas komisijas mājoklis Riga, Jura Alunāna ielā 3, dz. 2.
    Biedribas jālikvidē 2 mēnesu laikā pēc sī lēmuma izsludināsanas “APP Ziŋotājā”
.     Tautas Komişāru Padomes priekssēd. vietn. R. Neilands.
    Biedribu likvidāc, komit priekssēdētājs M. Paupers.
[12th December 1940. In accordance with the law on non-profit societies and unions (Lik. Kr. 1938g. 49) Where such Societies …
    Liquidation commission housing in Riga, Jura Alunana Street 3, b. Second
    Societies removed two months after this decision, the promulgation of the “APPreporter”.
    President of the Council of People's Commissars. Site. R. Neilands.
    Winding up of the Society, Mr. President Commit Paupers.]
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[Yiddish. Obchinsky, Levi ben Dover Yona, The history of the Jews of Latvia from 1561 to 1923, Riga 1928.]
אליאב ב., בובא מ., קרמר א. (עורכים) יהדות לטביה (ספר זיכרון) תשי”ג.
[Hebrew. Eliav B, Buba M, Kremer A (editors), The Jewish People of Latvia (a memorial book), 1953]
אלמאנאך פון פארבאנד - אידן איטיילנעמער אין לעטלאנדס באפרייאונגס-קריג, ריגע, 1931.
]Yiddish. Almanac of the Jewish National Workers Alliance - Jewish participants in Latvia's war of independence, Riga 1931.]
אלטשולר, מורדכי (עורך), יהדות ברית המועצות באספקלריה של עיתונות יידיש בפולין (ביבליוגרפיה 1945-1970), ירושלים, תשל ”ב.
[Hebrew. Altschuler Mordechai (editor), The Jews of the Soviet Union in the light of the Yiddish press in Poland, Jerusalem, 1972.]
”ארט” אלמאנאך (איינמאליקע אוסגאבע צום 50-יאריקן יובל פון פארבאנד ”ארט“) ריגע, 1930.
[Yiddish. The “ART Almanac (One-time edition on the 50 year jubilee of the “ART alliance, Riga, 1930.]
אתי אברהם, ניישטט מרדכי, קורותיה של תנועה: נצ”ח בלטביה, תל-אביב, תשל”ג - 1972.
[Hebrew: Etti Avraham, Neishtet Mordechai, The History of a Movement: Netsah in Latvia, Tel-Aviv 1972.]
בובה מענדל, יידן אין לטלאנד, תל-אביב, תשל ”ג - 1972.
[Yiddish: Bubba Mendel, The Jews in Latvia, Tel-Aviv 1972.]
בובה מנדל, פרקים בתולדות יהדות לטביה (1651-1918), תל-אביב, תשכ”ה - 1965.
[Hebrew: Bubba Mendel, Some chapters in the history of the Jewish population of Latvia (1651-1918), Tel-Aviv, 1965.]
בוכבינדר נ.א., די געשיכטע פון דער יידישער ארבעטר-באוועגונג אין רוסלאנדת ווילנע, 1931.
[Yiddish: Buchbinder N.A., The history of the Jewish Worker's Movement in Russia, Vilna, 1931.]
גאר יוסף, ביבליאגראפיע פון ארטיקלען וועגן חורבן און גבורה אין יידישער פעריאדיקע, 1,ביבליאגראפישע סעריע, ניו יורק, תשכ”ו - 1966.
[Yiddish: Gar Yosef, Bibliography of articles about destruction and bravery in Yiddish periodicals, Bibliographic series 1, New York 1966.]
גאר יוסף, ביבליאגראפיע פון ארטיקלען וועגן חורבן און גבורה אין יידישער פעריאדיקע, 10,ביבליאגראפישע סעריע, ניו יורק, תשכ ”ט - 1969.
[Yiddish: Gar Yosef, Bibliography of articles about destruction and bravery in Yiddish periodicals, Bibliographic series 10, New York 1969.]
גאטליב שמואל נח, ספר באהלי שם, פינסק תרע”ב - 1912.
[Hebrew: Gottlieb Shmuel Noah, A book in the precincts of G-d, Pinsk, 1912.]
גאטליב שמואל נח, די געשיכטע פון בונד, זאמלבוך, באנד 1,2,3,4 ניו יארק 1960, 1962, 1963, 1972.
[Yiddish: Gottlieb Shmuel Noah, The history of the Bund, volumes 1,2,3,4, New York 1960, 1962, 1963, 1972.]
גראסמן וואסילי, ערענבורג איליא (צונויפגעשטעלט און רעדקטירט) דאס שוורצע בוך (וועגן רוצחישן טאטאלן מארד פון יידן דורך די דייטשיש-פאשיסטישע פארכאפערס אין די צייטווייליק-אוקופירטע ראיאנען פון ראטן-פארבנד און אין די אויסראט-לאגערן פון פוילן אין צייט פון דער מלחמה 1941-1945, יד ושם, 1984.
[Yiddish: Grossman Vasily, Ehrenburg Ilya (arranged and edited), The black book (about the total murderous annihilation of Jews by the German-Fascist conquerors in the temporarily occupied regions of Soviet Russia and in the concentration camps of Poland during the 1941-1945 war), Yad VaShem, 1984.]
גערץ מ., 25 (פינף און צוונציק) יאר אידישע פרעסע אין לעטלאנד, ריגע, 1933. [Yiddish: Gerz M., 25 (twenty five) years of Yiddish press in Latvia, Riga, 1933.]
דובנוב שמעון, דיברי ימי עם עולם, כרחים ח', ט', י', י ”א (מהדורה 5) תל-אביב, תש ”ו. [Hebrew: Dubnov Shimon, Memoirs of my days in the world, volumes 8,9,10,11 (5th edition), Tel-Aviv, 1946.]
הערץ י.ש., דורות בונדיסטן, צווייטר באנד, ניו-יארק, 1956.
[Yiddish: Herz Y.Sh., Bund generations, second volume, New York, 1956.]
זליגמן ישראל, מגילת יוחסין, יחס אבות מהרב ר' בן ציון דון יחייא החוב ”ך לוזא, לוצין תרצ ”ח. [Hebrew: Family tree (scroll), Paternal relationship fr
om Rabbi Don Yechiye ben Zion of Ludza, Luchin, 1938.]
טאובין בוריס (דב), באיחור של שלושים שנה, תל-אביב, תשמ ”ג - 1981.
[Hebrew: Taubin Boris (Dov), 30 years late, Tel-Aviv, 1981.]
ירדני נחמן(עורך), מקור ודרך, קבוצת כנרת, 1985.
[Hebrew: Yardeni Nachman (editor), The source and the way, Kineret Group, 1985.]
ירושלמי אליעזר, פנקס שאבלי, יומן מגיטו ליטאי (1941-1944), ירושלים, תשי ”ח.
[Hebrew: Yerushalmi Eliezer, The Šiauliai papers, a diary from the ghetto (1941-1944), Jerusalem, 1950.]
לבינשטיין מאיר, על קו הקץ, תל-אביב, תשל ”ה - 1975.
[Hebrew: Levinstein Meir, On the line at the end, Tel-Aviv, 1975.]
לוין דב, עם הגב אל הקיר(לחימת יהודי לטביה בנאצים 1941-1945), תל-אביב, תשל”ח - 1978.
[Hebrew: Levin Dov, With our back against the wall (The fight of the Latvian Jews against the Nazis 1941-1945), Tel-Aviv, 1978.]
לעשטשינסקי יעקב, דאס יידישע פאלק אין ציפערן, בערלין, 1922.
[Yiddish: Letchinsky Yaakov, The Jewish people in Cypress, Berlin, 1922.]
מאריין יצחק, 15 יאר לעטלאנד: 1918 - 1933, ריגע, 1933.
[Yiddish: Marian Yitchak, 15 years of Latvia, 1918 - 1933, Riga, 1933.]
מארק מענדל, די יידיש-וועלטלעכע שול אין לעטלאנד, תל-אביב, תשל ”ד - 1973.
[Yiddish: Mark Mendel, The Yiddish - secular school in Latvia, Tel-Aviv, 1973.]
ניגער שמואל, שאצקי יעקב (רעד.), לקסיקאן פון דער נייער יידישער לטעראטור, א-ב, ניו-יארק, 1956.
[Yiddish: Niger Shmuel, Shatsky Yaakov (editors), Lexicon of the new Yiddish literature, A-B, New York, 1956.]
פיקאז' מנדל, השואה וספיחיה בספרים העבריים שיצאו לאור בשנים 1933-1972, ביבליוגראפיה, 2 כרכים, ירושלים, תשל”ד - 1974.
[Hebrew: Piekarz Mendel, The holocaust and it aftermath in Hebrew books that were published in the years 1933-1972, a bibliography, 2 volumes, Jerusalem, 1974.]
פיקאז' מנדל, השואה והגבורה באספקלריה של העיתונות העברית, ביבליוגראפיה, 4 כרכים, ירושלים, תשכ”ז.
[Hebrew: Piekarz Mendel, The holocaust and heroism in the light of the Hebrew press, a bibliography, 4 volumes, Jerusalem, 1967.]
פיקאז' מנדל, פנקס פון ריגער אידישע גזלשפטלעכע און פילנטראפישע טוערס, ריגע, 1934.
[Yiddish: Piekarz Mendel, A list of Jewish commercial and philanthropic workers in Riga, Riga, 1934.]
פריינקל-זאלצמאן פעסיע, העפטלינג נומער 94771 (איבער לעבערנישן אין די דייטשע לאגערן 1941 - 1945), מונרעאל, 1949.
[Yiddish: Frankel-Zaltzman Paula, Prisoner number 94771 (about niches of life in the German camps 1941-1945), Montreal, 1949.]
פריינקל-זאלצמאן פעסיע, 20 (צוואנציק] יאר מכבי (1918-1938), ריגע, 1939.
[Yiddish: Frankel-Zaltzman Paula, 20 (twenty) years of Macabee (1918-1938), Riga, 1939.]
קרסל ג., לקסיקון הספרות העברית בדורות האחרונים, 2 כרכים, מרחביה, 1965-1967.
[Hebrew: A lexicon of Hebrew literature in recent generations, 2 volumes, Merchavia, 1965-1967.]
ראסען יעקב, מיר ווילן לעבן, ניו-יארק, 1949.
[Yiddish: Rassen Yaakov, We want life, New York, 1949.]
שאץ-אנין מ., די אידן אין לעטלאנד, ריגע, 1924.
[Yiddish: Shatz-Anin M., The Jews in Latvia, Riga, 1924.]
תדהר דוד,אנציקלופדיה לחלוצי הישוב ובוניו, תל-אביב 1946-1970.
[Hebrew: Tidhar David, Encyclopedia of pioneers in the settlement and its builders, Tel-Aviv, 1946-1970.]
Aerzte Kurlands [Doctors of Courland], Mitau (1900), (1901).
Arbusov Leonid, Grundriss der Geschichte Liv-, Est- und Kurlands [Outline of the history of Livonia, Estonia and Courland], Riga, 1908.
Avotins E., Dzirkalis J., Petersons V., Kas ir Daugavas vanagi [What are Daugav hawkers], Riga, 1962.
Avotins E., Dzirkalis J., Petersons V., Daugavas vanagi [Daugav hawkers], - who are they?, Riga, 1963.
Berzinsh Alfred, I saw Vishinsky bolshevize Latvia, Washington, 1948.
Birznieks M., No SS un SD lidz [From the SS to the SD and onwards], Riga, 1979.
Blackbook of Localities whose Jewish Population was exterminated by the Nazis, Yad VaShem, Jerusalem, 1965.
Bobe M., Levenberg S., Maor I., Michaeli Z.(Editorial Board), The Jews in Latvia, Tel-Aviv, 1971.
Buchhalz Anton, Geschichte der Juden in Riga bis zur Begründung Rigischen Hebräergemeinde J. 1842 [A history of the Jews in Riga up until the founding of the Riga Hebrew community in the year 1842], Riga, 1899.
The Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World, New York, 1952.
Ehrlich A., Entwicklungsgeschichte der Israelitischen Gemeinde [The history of the development of the Israelite community], Riga, S.Petersburg, 1894.
Fridmane G., Fridmanis F., Latgales revoliucionara jaunatne [Revolutionary youth of Latgale], Riga, 1957.
Hitlerininku piktadarybes Pabaltiye. Rygos teismo proceso kroniko ir kaltinamoji isvada (26.1.1946-2.2.1946) [Nazi crimes in the Baltic region. Chronicles of the indictment in the Riga trial (26.1.1946-2.2.1946)], Vilnius, 1957.
Joffe J.(Editor), Regesten und Urkunden zur Geschichte der Juden in Riga und Kurland [Registry and documents on the history of the Jews in Riga and Courland], Riga, 1910,1911,1912.
Kalme Albert, Sovjets Blodsdad i Baltikum [Soviet massacres in the Baltics], Stokholm, 1985.
Kalnins Bruno, Latvijas S. Demokratijas - 50 gadi [Latvia's Democracy - 50 years], Stokholm, 1956.
Katz Josef, One who came back; the diary of a Jewish survivor, New York, 1973.
Kaufmann M., Die Vernichtung der Juden Lettlands [The extermination of the Jews of Latvia](Churbn Lettland), München, 1947.
Krausnick Helmut, Wilhelm Hans-Heinrich, Die Truppe des Weltanschauungskriege (Die Einsatzgruppen der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD 1938-1942)[The forces of the ideological war (the Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and SD, 1938-1942)], Part I, Part II, Stuttgart, 1981.
Latvijas PSR. Maja enciklopedija [The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic. Home encyclopaedia], I-III, Riga, 1967-1970.
Latvijas 1940 Telefona Lietojams ar 1940 g. 1 April. abonetu sarakts [Latvian telephone directory 1 April 1940. List of subscribers.], Riga, 1940.
Latvju Enciklopedija [Latvian encyclopaedia], Stockholm, 1953-1955.
Lejins J., Latvian Jewish Relations (Canada), 1975.
Levinson Isaak, The Untold Story, Johannesburg, 1958.
Mangulis Visvaldis, Latvia in the wars of the 20th century, Princeton Junction, N.Y. 1986.
Mikhelson F., I survived Rumbuli, New-York, 1974.
Rutkis J. (Ed.), Latvia; Country and People, Stockholm, 1967. Salnais V. un Maldaps A., Latvijas ciemi [Latvian villages], Riga, 1936.
Salnais V., Lejins J., un Maldaps A., Pilsetu apraksti [Descriptions of cities], Riga, (1935), (1936), (1937).
Sausniš K. (Red.), Salaspils, Naves nomettne [Salaspils death camp], Riga, 1962.
Seraphim Ernst, Geschichte Liv-Est und Kurlands von der Aufsegelung des Landes bis zur Einferbleibung ins das Russische Reich [History of East-Livonia and Courland from the launch of the country till its annexation into the Russian Empire], Reval, 1896.
Silabriedis J., Arklans B., Political refuges - unmasked, Riga, 1965.
Skujenieks M., Latvija (Zeme un iedzivotaji) [Latvia (land and population)], Riga, (1920),(1922),(1927),(1935).
Skujenieks M., Valsts statistiska, Latvijas statistiska gada gramata (1920) [National statistics, the Latvian statistical yearbook (1920)], Riga, 1920.
Skujenieks M., (Teksts un redakcija), Otra tautas skaitišana Latvija [(Text and notes), the second national census Latvia], Riga, 1925-1928.
Skujenieks M., Valsts statistiska parvalde (Teksts un redakcija), Treša tau, as skaitišana Latvija (1930 gada) [State Statistical Bureau (Text and notes), the third taking of the census in Latvia (year 1930)], Riga, 1930.
Skujenieks M., Salnitis V. (surveyors), Valsts statistiska parvalde, [National Bureau of Statistics].
Skujenieks M., Ceturta tautas skaitisana Latvija (1935 gadà) [Fourth Population and Housing Census in Latvia (1935)], Riga, 1937.
Wunderbar Reuben Joseph, Geschichte der Juden in der Provinzen Liv- und Kurland (seit ihrer frühesten Niederlassung bis auf die gegenwärtige Zeit) [History of the Jews in the provinces of Livonia and Courland (since its earliest settlement up to the present time)], Mitau, 1853.
Блюм И. А. Зак Л. С. (Ред.), Кооперация среди евреев (По данным 1911 и 1912 г.г.), С. Петербург, 1913.
[Blum I.A., Zach L. (Eds.), Cooperation among the Jews (For the years 1911 and 1912), S. Peterburg, 1913.]
Гессен Юлий, История еврейского народа в России, Петроград, т. I - 1916, т. 2 - 1927.
[Hesse Julius, History of the Jewish people in Russia, St. Petersburg, Volume I - 1916, Volume 2 - 1927.]
Гимпелсон Я. И., Законы о евреах, т.т. I, II, С. Петербург, 1914-1915.
[Gimpelson Ya. I., Laws of the Jews, Volumess I, II, St. Petersburg, 1914-1915.]
Дризул А. А., Самсон В. П., Савченко Б. И. (Ред. кол.), Борьба латышского народа в годы Великой Отечественной войны (1941-1945), Рига, 1970.
[Drizul A. A, Samson V. P., Savchenko B. I. (Ed. col.) The struggle of the Latvian people in the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945), Riga, 1970.]
Еврейская энциклопедия (1908-1913), издание Общества для научных еврейских изданий и Издательства Брокгауз-Эфрон, С. Петербург.
[The Jewish Encyclopedia (1908-1913), published by the Society for Scientific Jewish publications and Publishers Brockhaus-Efron, St. Petersburg.]
Еврейский календарь, “Кадима”, Вилна, 1909-1918.
[The Jewish calendar, “Kadima”, Vilna, 1909-1918.]
Еврейское статистическое общество, Еврейское население России (Рост по данным переписи 1897 и по данным источникам), Петроград.
[Jewish statistical society, the Jewish population of Russia (according to the data of the 1897 Census, and according to sources), Petrograd.]
Иоктон Копель Михайлович, История юного военного инвалида еврея русской армии, Париж, 1938.
[Iokton Kopel Mikhailovich, Story of the young disabled Jewish soldier of the Russian Army, Paris, 1938.]
Иоктон Копель Михайлович, История евреев в России, Москва, 1914.
[Iokton Kopel Mikhailovich, History of the Jews in Russia, Moscow, 1914.]
Кадикис А., Рашкевич А., Самсон П. (Ред.), Мы Обвиняем, Рига, 1967.
[Kadikis A. Rashkevich A. Samson P. (Ed.), We accuse, Riga, 1967.]
Локшин В. С. (Ред.-сост.), К берегам Янтарного моря (Воспоминания, сборник), Москва, 1969.
[Lokshin V. S. (Ed.-comp.), To the shores of the Amber Sea (Collected Memories), Moscow, 1969.]
Невлер В. Е., Дни и годы в революционном подполье, Рига, 1962.
[Nevler V. E., Days and years in the revolutionary underground, Riga, 1962]
Поляков Ю. А. (Сост.), Эшелоны идут на Восток (1941-1942), сборник статей и воспоминаний, Москва, 1966.
[Polyakov Yu. A. (Compiler), Trains go to the East (1941-1942), a collection of articles and memoirs, Moscow, 1966.]
Поляков Ю. А., Регесты и надписи, т. т. I, II, III, IV (1899-1913), С. Петербург.
[Polyakov Yu. A., Registry and inscriptions, volumes. I, II, III, IV (1899-1913), St. Petersburg.]
Савченко В. И., Гвардейская латышская, Рига, 1961.
[Savchenko V. I., The Latvian Guards, Riga, 1961]
Савченко В. И., Сборник материалов об экономическом положении евреев России, т.т. I, II, С. Петербург, 1904.
[Savchenko V. I., Collection of material on the economic situation of the Jews in Russia, Volumes I, II, St. Petersburg, 1904]
Савченко В. И., Сборник статистических сведений по Лифландской губернии, Рига, 1886.
[Savchenko V. I., Collection of statistical data on the Lifland province, Riga, 1886]
Савченко В. И., Справочная книга по вопросам образования евреев, С. Петербург, 1901.
[Savchenko V. I., A reference book on education of Jews, St. Petersburg, 1901]
Стразднина К. Я. (Ред.), История Латвийской ССР, Рига, 1955.
[Strazdnina K. A. (Ed.), History of the Latvian SSR, Riga, 1955]
Фрумкин Г., Аронсон Г. А. и Гольденвейзер А. А. (Ред. Колл.), Книга о русском еврействе (Сборник статей), Нью-Иорк, т. I-1960, т. II-1968.
[Frumkin, G., Aronson G. A. and Goldenweizer A. A. (Ed. Coll.), The Book of Russian Jewry (Collection of articles), New York, vol. I-1960, vol. II-1968.]
Штромберг А. (Ред.), Борьба за Советскую Прибалтику в Великой Отечественной войне (1941-1945), т. т. I, II, III, Рига, 1966-1969.
[Stromberg, A. (ed.), Fighting for the Soviet Baltic in the great patriotic war (1941-1945), vols. I, II, III, Riga, 1966-1969]
Яшунский И. В., Еврейска периодическая печать в 1917 и 1918 г. г., Петроград, 1920.
[Yashunskii I. V., Jewish periodical press in 1917 and 1918, Petrograd, 1920]
Essays
אלכסנדר צ'., “מדיניות העליה של ברית המועצות 1968-1978”, בחינות 8-9, 1979.
[Alexander Ch., “Immigration policy of the Soviet Union 1968-1978”, Examinations 8-9, 1979.]
ארונס פייבוש, ”זכרונותיו של שחקן יהודי ”, העבר, כ “ב, תל-אביב תשלז - 1977.
[Arones Feibush, “Memoirs of a Jewish actor”, HeAvar, 22, Tel-Aviv 1977]
אושקאלן אוטומר, “במאבק בעד לטביה סובייטית ” הם היו רבים, תל-אביב תשכ ”ח - 1968.
[Oshkaln Ottomar, “In the struggle for Soviet Latvia”, They were many, Tel-Aviv 1968]
בובה מנדל, “הגבלות, מסים והטלים על יהדות לטביה החל מהמאה ה-17” גשר, 4/53, תל-אביב 1967.
[Bubba Mendel, “Restrictions, taxes and surcharges imposed on the Jews of Latvia starting from the 17th century”, Gesher, 4/53, Tel-Aviv 1967]
בובה מנדל, “ההסטוריון הראשון של יהודי ליפלנד וקורלנד ”, העבר, י ”א, תל-אביב 1964.
[Bubba Mendel, “The first historian of the Jews of Lifland and Courland”, HeAvar, 11, Tel-Aviv 1964]
בובה מנדל, “מורדכי דובין - 10 שנים לפטירתו “ העבר, י ”ד, תל-אביב תשכ ”ז - 1967.
[Bubba Mendel, “Mordechai Dubbin - 10 years after his death”, HeAvar, 14, Tel-Aviv 1967]
בר-תקווה ב., “עם הרב ד ”ר מ. נורוק ז “ל בגירוש אוזבקיסטין ”, בצרון מ “ז, חוברת ה', תשכ ”ג.
[Bar-Tikva B., “With the late rabbi Dr. M. Nurock in the exile to Uzbeckistan”, BeTzaron 47, book 5, 1963]
גאר יוסף, “לעבן און אומקום פון די יידן אין לעטלאנד ”, באלטישר לענדר, אלגמיינע ענציקלופעדיע 6, יידן, ניו-יארק, 1964.
[Gar Joseph, “The life and fate of the Jews in Latvia”, Baltic lands, General Encyclopedia 6, Jews, New-York, 1964]
וורהפטיג דוד, ”מגילת הייסורים של בית “ר - אסיר ציון בבריהמ ”, האומה, שנה ג', חוברת ח', 1973.
[Warhaftig David, “The record of the suffering of Beitar - a prisoner of Zion in the USSR”, HaUma, year 3, book 8, 1973.]
זיו ב', “היהודים בארצות הבאלטיות ”, העולם, כרך 30, חוברות 10, 21 (תש ”ב).
[Ziv B., “The Jews of the Baltic lands”, HaOlam, volume 30, books 10, 21 (1942)]
יד ויעד, בטאון יוצאי לטביה ואסטוניה בישראל, תשל“ ”ו - 1971.
[Remembrance and Destiny, The organ of the Latvian and Estonian immigrants in Israel, 1971]
ינאי מרים, “החינוך היהודי בלטביה בין שתי מלחמות העולם ”, עבודה סמינריונית, שנכתבה במסגרת החוג לתולדות עם ישראל, אוניברסיטת חיפה, 1982.
[Yanai Miriam, “Jewish Education in Latvia between the two world wars”, a seminar study, written in the framework of the department of history of the Israeli nation, Haifa University, 1982]
לוין דב, “השתתפות יהודים במלחמת העצמעות של לטביה ואסטוניה ”, העבר, כ “ב, תל-אביב, תשל ”ז - 1977.
[Levin Dov, “Participation of Jews in the war of independence of Latvia and Estonia”, HeAvar, 22, 1977]
לוין דב, “יהודי הארצות הבלטיות בפריחתם ובכיליונם ”, משואה, י “ב, תל-יצחק - תל-אביב, תשמ ”ד - 1984.
[Levin Dov, “Jews in the Rise and Fall of the Baltic states”, Meshua, 12, Tel-Yizchak - Tel-Aviv, 1984]
לוין דב, “יהודי לטביה בין הסתייגות לבין הסתגלות למשתר הסובייטי 1940-1941”, בחינות, מס' 5, תל-אביב, 1970.
[Levin Dov, “The Jews of Latvia between objection to and accommodation to the Soviet regime”, Behinot, no. 5, Tel-Aviv, 1970]
לוין דב, “יהודי לטביה בליחמה הפרטיזנית ”, דפים לחקר תקופת השואה, כרך א', בית לוחמי הגטאות, תשל ”ט.
[Levin Dov, “The Jews of Latvia in the partisan warfare”, study pages about the Holocaust period, volume 1, Bet Lochamei HaGetaot, 1979]
לוין דב, “ ”מדיניות ברית המועצות כלפי הארצות הבאלטיות “, בעיות בין לאומיות, כרך י ”ז, מס 2 (34), 1978.
[Levin Dov, “The Policy of the Soviet Union towards the Baltic States”, international problems, volume 17, no. 2 (34), 1978]
לוין דב, “מלחמת קיום בגלות סיביר ”, (לקורות היהודים שהוגלו מלטביה לברית המועצות במלחמת העולם השניה), עיונים ביהדות זמננו (ג'פרי ויגודר - עורך), האוניברסיטה העברית, ירושלים, תשמ ׆ד.
[Levin Dov, “The battle to survive the exile in Siberia”, (about the history of the Jews who were deported from Latvia to the Soviet Union in the Second World War), insight into the Jews of today, (Geoffrey Wigoder - Ed.), The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1984]
”לטביה “, האינציקלופדיה העברית, כרך כ ׆א, תשכ “ט.
[“Latvia”, the Hebrew encyclopedia, volume 21, 1969]
עדעלשטיין משה, “דער אונטרגנג פון לעטישן יידנטום ”, אונדזער ווארט, במבערג, 20.12.1946.
[Edelstein Moshe, “The downfall of the Latvian Jewish people”, Unzer Wart, Bamberg, 20.12.1946]
מאור יצחק, “על יהדות לטביה ואסטוניה ”, הפועל הצעיר, שנה מ ”ה, חוברת 11, 18.12.1950.
[Maor Yizchak, “On the Jews of Latvia and Estonia”, HaPoel HaTsair, year 55, book 11, 18.12.1950]
פורת אליהו, “העיתונות היהודית בלאטביה ”, (גוטהלף יהודה - עורך), עיתונות יהודית שהיתה, תל-אביב, תשל “ ”#1490; 1973.
[Porat Eliyahu, “Jewish journalism in Latvia”, (Gothelf Yehuda - Editor), Jewish Journalism of the past, Tel-Aviv 1973]
צינוביץ מ', “על גולת הבלטיקום ”, הצופה, 3.11.1944.
[Chinovitz M., “On the Baltic Diaspora”, HaZofe, 3.11.1944]
ריבקין ב., “די קורלענדר לטוואקעס ”, ליטע, 1 (דער י' סוצארסקי), ניו-יארק, 1951.
[Rivkin B., “The Lithuanians in Courland”, Lithuania, 1 (The 10 Sucharski), New York, 1951]
שאץ-אנין מ., “אף מיין לעבנס-וועג ”, סאוועטיש היימלנד, 11, מאסקווע, 1970.
[Shatz-Anin M., “On the road to my life”, Savetish Heimland, 11, Moscow, 1970]
שרוסטר בן-ציון, “תנועת הרצליה בלטביה בימי מלחמת העולם השניה ”, משואה, ג', 1975.
[Sheroster Ben-Zion, “The Herzlia movement in Latvia during the Second World War”, Mesua, 3 1975]
Бруцкис Ю., “История евреев в Курляндии до присоединения с Россией”, Восход, 7, 8, 1896.
[Brutskis Yu., “History of the Jews in Courland until the annexation by Russia,” Sunrise, 7, 8, 1896]
Гессен Ю., “Дарование гражданских прав евреям в Курляндии”, Восход, 11, 12, 1904.
[Hessen Yu., “Giving civil rights to the Jews in Courland”, Sunrise, 11, 12, 1904]
Newspapers
“אונזער ווארט ”, (1946), פאריז. [“Unzer Wart”, (1946), Paris]
”אופבוי “, (1940-1941), ריגע. [“Ufboi”, (1940-1941), Riga]
“אידיש פאלקס-שטימע ”, (1919), ריגע. [“Idish Falk-Stimme”, (1919), Riga]
”אייניקייט “, (1945), מאסקווע. [“Einikeit”, (1945), Moscow] “דער אמעריקאנקער ”, (1941-1945), ניו-יארק. [“Der Amerikaner”, (1941-1945), New-York]
”הארץ “, (1944), תל-אביב. [“HaAretz”, (1944), Tel-Aviv]
”דבר “, (1944), תל-אביב. [“Davar”, (1944), Tel-Aviv]
”היינט “, (1926-1944), ריגע. [“Heint”, (1926-1944), Riga]
”היינט “, (1936-1939), ווארשע. [“Heint”, (1936-1939), Warsaw]
”היינט באטאג “, (1930-1940), ריגע. [“Heint Batag”, (1930-1940), Riga]
”המגיד “, (1865), (1868), (1871-1872), (1875), (1885).
[“HaMagid”, (1865), (1868), (1871-1872), (1875), (1885)]
”המליץ “, (1861), (1863), (1873), (1878-1880), (1883-1890), (1892-1894), (1897-1902).
[“HaMelitz”, (1861), (1863), (1873), (1878-1880), (1883-1890), (1892-1894), (1897-1902)]
”המשקיף “, (1945), תל-אביב. [“HaMashkif”, (1945), Tel-Aviv]
”ניי לעבן “, (1943), ניו-יארק. [“Nei Leben”, (1943), New-York]
”דאס פאלק “, (1920-1926), ריגע. [“Das Falk”, (1920-1926), Riga]
”פאלקסבלאט “, (1934), קאונע. [“Falksblat”, (1934), Kaunas]
”פאלקס-שטימע “, (1969-1975), ווארשע. [“Falks-Stimme”, (1969-1975), Warsaw]
”פרימארגן “, (1920-1933), ריגע. [“Frimargen”, (1920-1933), Riga]
”הצופה “, (1944), תל-אביב. [“HaTzofe”, (1944), Tel-Aviv]
”הצפירה “, (1879), (1880), (1884-1885), (1890), (1899), (1901-1902), (1905).
[“HaTzefira”, (1879), (1880), (1884-1885), (1890), (1899), (1901-1902), (1905)]
“Deutsche Zeitung in Ostland”, (1941), Riga.
“Kurzemes vards”, (1941).
Periodical Magazines
”אזע “, און זיין טעטיקייט, (1912-194, 1924), בערליו. [“AZE”, An Zein Tetikeit, (1912-194, 1924), Berlin]
יארבוך פאר יידישע ביבליאטעקן, (1914), ווילנע. [Yearbook for Jewish literature, (1914), Vilna]
דער ליטוויש-לעטישר ייד אין אורוגווי, (1974), מאנטעווידעא. [The Lithuanian-Latvian Jew in Uruguay, (1974), Montevideo]
שול-אלמאנאך, (1935), פילאדעלפיע. [Synagogue-Almanac, (1935), Philadelphia]
שריפטן פאר עקאנאמיק און סטאטיסטיק, (1926), בערלין. [Journal for economics and statistics, (1926), Berlin]
“Будущность”, (1900, 1904), С. Петербург. [“The future”, (1900, 1904), St. Petersburg]
“Вестник Общества распространения образования”, (1910-1914).
[“Bulletin of the Society of Education׆ (1910-1914)]
“Вестник Общества распространения просвещения между евреями”, (1910), (1914), С. Петербург.
[“Bulletin of the Society of Education among the Jews” (1910), (1914), St. Petersburg.]
“Вестник русских евреев”, (1871-1873), (1911), (1914), С. Петербург.
[“Bulletin of the Russian Jews, ” (1871-1873), (1911), (1914), St. Petersburg]
“Восход”, (1882), 47 (1883), 17 (1886), 3,8 (1888), 4 (1893), 7 (1896), 19 (1898), 2 (1903), 7,8 (1906), С. Петербург.
[“Sunrise” (1882), 47 (1883), 17 (1886), 3, 8 (1888), 4 (1893), 7 (1896), 19 (1898), 2 (1903), 7, 8 (1906), St. Petersburg]
“День”, I (1869), С. Петербург. [“Day”, I (1869), St. Petersburg]
“Еврейская жизнь”, (1916), Москва. [“Jewish Life” (1916), Moscow]
“Еврейская неделя”, (1910-1918), С. Петербург-Петроград.
[“Jewish week׆, (1910-1918), St. Petersburg-Petrograd]
“Еврейская старина”, 3, 5, 7 (1912), 10 (1918), С. Петербург-Петроград.
[“Jewish Antiquities”, 3, 5, 7 (1912), 10 (1918), St. Petersburg-Petrograd]
“Еврейская школа”, (1904), С. Петербург. [“Jewish School” (1904), St. Petersburg]
“Еврейские вести”, (1917), Петроград. [“Jewish News” (1917), Petrograd]
“Еврейские записки” (Ред. Пумпянский, Арон), (1881), Рига.
[“Jewish writings” (Ed. Pumpyansky, Aaron) (1881), Riga]
“Еврейские вестник”, (1914), (1922), Петроград. [“The Jewish Gazette” (1914), (1922), Petrograd]
“Еврейские мир”, (Январь-Апрель, 1911), (1917), С. Петербург-Петроград.
[“Jewish World” (January-April, 1911), (1917), St. Petersburg-Petrograd]
“Рассвет”, (1881), 16, 40, (1882), (1884), (1907), 8, 9, 11 (1908), 32 (1911), 2 (1912), 5, 43 (1913), (1915), (1918), 22 (1922), 44 (1925) С. Петербург-Петроград.
[“Dawn” (1881), 16, 40, (1882), (1884), (1907), 8, 9, 11 (1908), 32 (1911), 2 (1912), 5, 43 (1913) (1915), (1918), 22 (1922), 44 (1925), St. Petersburg-Petrograd]
“Русский еврей”, (1879-1884), Москва. [“Russian Jew” (1879-1884), Moscow]
Врачебно-санитарная организация среду еврейского населениа, С. Петербург, 1914.
[Medical-care organization of the Jewish population, St. Petersburg, 1914]
Еврейский комитет помощи жертвам войны (Списки жертвователей- 1.1.1915), Петроград, 1914-1916.
[Jewish Committee for war victims (list of donors, 01.01.1915), Petrograd, 1914-1916]
Отчет Еврейского музыкального драматического и литературного общества, “Кармен”, Рига, 1911.
[A report of the Jewish music, drama and literary society, “Carmen”, Riga, 1911]
Отчет С. Петербургского общества пособия бедным евреям на 1911 год.
[Report of the St. Petersburg benevolent society for poor Jews in the year 1911]
Совещание еврейских общественных деятелей в г. Ковне (19-22 ноября), стенографический отчет, С. Петербург, 1910.
[The meeting of Jewish leaders in the city of Kovno (19-22 November), transcript, St. Petersburg, 1910]
Список пожертвований в пользу образования Общества ремесленного и земледельческого труда среду евреев в Россий, 1889, С. Петербург.
[List of donations for the training of commercial handicrafts and agricultural work among the Jews in Russia, 1889, St. Petersburg]
Съезд представителей комитетов еврейского колонизационного общества в Либаве (12-15 сентября 1910).
[Congress of the committees of the Jewish Colonization Association in Libau (12-15 September 1910)]

 

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