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[Page 22]

The Lost Wager

by Gedaliah Shaiak

Translated from the Yiddish by June Factor-Rogers, B.A. Dip. ED. (Melb.)

Retyped by Helen Rosenstein Wolf

The translator is a grandchild of Lowitcher parents

The right half of the wooden archlike gate of the main entrance to the two-storey house hung now broken like the wing of a giant wounded bird. The grey peeling walls merged with the dampness of the grey Polish autumn. Pieces of shrapnel were buried in the wood, mute evidence of the heavy bombardment three weeks earlier, when the Nazis had captured the fortified city Lowicz.

A playful light wind plucked the half yellowed leaves from the fruit trees whose bare branches stretched up between the low blue-calcimined, thatched cottages. The small, half-crooked shutters, the sparse paling fences, the wide meandering street; all gave the characteristic appearance of an outer suburb.

The double storey house was the largest in the street; its exterior wall ran a parallel course down to a small wooden bridge over a creek. In this street lived impoverished Polish workers and a few civil servants. Framed in the narrow, low windows of the houses were pot plants and guilded crosses, the latter evidence to all passers-by of the Christian character of the street. At the far end of the street stood an old church, well known from the days of the Bishop era.

In the large house there lived one Jewish family, that of one-eyed Shmuel, the meat and poultry dealer. A few houses further down, near where the creek cut the street in two, were a scattering of other Jewish families; in their yellowed peeling houses they lived isolated as if on a lonely island. Instead of using the large farm gate which opened onto the Christian street, they preferred a small back gate which led to the Kutner market place and thence to the Jewish community centre.

The section of the town near the creek was generally considered to be for Christians only, but when a Jew died it was necessary for the funeral procession to pass through the three-cornered market place and then along the street which led over the bridge to the cemetery, situated some distance from the town, not far from the windmills. When such a Jewish funeral entered the street, the Poles, men and women both, would peer through their windows, or gather in groups outside their doors. They would stare at the black-draped coffin as if it contained some evil magic. They gazed with wonder at the long coated, bearded Jews, and the whole entourage following the coffin seemed to inspire them with fear. Appearing as it did suddenly in their midst in broad daylight, the procession, with the regular beat of the collection tins and the sad monotonous chanting, produced an extraordinary reaction. Small peasant lads gazed wide-eyed at their parents, who whispered something to them and gestured silence. One could never be certain, looking at these cold, sharp faces, whether they regarded the funeral procession sympathetically, with sorrow for the weeping Jews, or vindictively, with pleasure that in this town there was now one Jew less.

On this particular day, late in September 1939, the street was quiet, as if deserted. The other side of town seemed a world away, with its Jewish streets resounding to the booted steps of Von Brauchitchs' Panzer units; the troops who had won the battle of the Bzura River against heavy Polish Army resistance, and had opened the way to the occupation of Warsaw.

In a large backyard of the double storey house, one-eyed Shmuel was unhitching his skinny horse from the cart loaded with bedclothes and crockery. He and his wife and only son had just returned from the village of Mislevice where they had been hiding at a peasant's cottage since the bombing of the town five days after war was declared on Poland. Steam rose from the horse's hide; it had pulled the heavy cart for over thirty miles. One-eyed Shmuel rub bed the horse down quickly, took off the saddle and bridle, and threw an old blanket over the horse's back. He carefully led the horse out of the shafts of the cart and into its stall.

Silently his wife and son unloaded the wagon and carried their possessions one by one into the house. Their Christian neighbours, who had undoubtedly thought them dead, lost in the turmoil like so many others, watched them work with impassive faces.

Shmuel was a tall, broad shouldered Jew, with a round, well shaven face, full of health and vigour. His left eye was disfigured by a white scar. With his heavy dimpled chin, and his large head thickly covered with hair graying at the temples, he looked like a typical country Jew, the kind who can lift an ox by its horns. His large nose and full lips gave to his face an appearance of stubbornness and fearlessness, an impression reinforced by his manner of walking, the padded jacket and high boots he wore, and even the astrakhan hat which made him look so tall. Nothing in his determined stride suggested that he was a Jew.

More than once his fists had been covered with the gentile blood of Jew baiters, who quaked at his step. The Jews in the town told each other wondrous stories of his heroic acts during the Czarist pogrom in 1905. More recently, when the Polish High Schools had instituted the “left benches” for Jews, and Polish students had combined with criminal elements to attack Jews indiscriminately, a number of attackers had to be carried off to hospital with broken limbs, thanks to one-eyed Shmuel.

This one-eyed Shmuel was an ordinary man of the people, with a rough clear voice which resounded like a hammer on tin. He followed the Biblical injunction of “an eye for an eye”, and saw more with his one good eye than many another with two. Every Saturday morning he

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could be seen slowly walking to the Synagogue, his prayer shawl under his arm. On arrival, he would place himself near the partition for the poor, and would gaze with humility and respect towards the front of the Synagogue, where the prayers were said.

Shmuel had a warm Jewish heart. In troubled times he was among the first to defend Jewish honour, disregarding the dangers which threatened his own life. He was like a staunch oak tree, one of those strong and fearless common folk who had for centuries defended their own against the attacks of the gentiles.

His wife Itte was of average height, with a dark olive complexion. Her soft dark eyes were inherited by their only child, Ichel, who was born late in their marriage, after countless visits to doctors and wise Jews.

Ichel was a slim, muscular lad, 20 years old, with thick hair and a pair of lively eyes that bespoke a youthful vigour. His appearance gave evidence of his racial inheritance; his strength and courage were an endowment from his father. The hooligans in his street, who would rudely accost passing Jews, were afraid of him. When he walked down the street dressed in his Beitar uniform they watched him suspiciously, for by nature they were cowards who attacked only those weaker than themselves; they feared anyone who retaliated in self-defense. In their eyes Ichel was a strong man, just like his father.

After unloading their goods from the wagon, the family sat down to their first meal at home for three weeks. In the village where they had stayed it had been peaceful, with few Germans in evidence.

As they sat, they felt a depressing atmosphere creeping over the house. Somehow everything seemed different. It was their home, but outside the walls of the house loomed a dark, threatening shadow.

Only one neighbour, embarrassed and ashamed, came to see them. He stood in the room as if he were mentally cataloguing what he would later pillage with the help of the Germans. Unasked, he volunteered information about the destruction of the Jewish centre in the city, the burning of dwellings and the rounding up of Jews who were being sent to work camps. It was only three weeks since the German armies had entered the town, and no special laws against Jews had yet been proclaimed.

Having finished eating, Shmuel resolved to walk down Dr. Stanislawskiego St. to visit his partner and relative, in order to find out what had happened to his family. Ichel decided to go with him.

No sooner had the two men crossed the threshold, than Itte felt a sudden premonition of disaster. She wanted to call back to her son, but desisted, knowing that he was in the care of his father, who would not permit harm to befall him. For many minutes she sat by the window, watching them walk down the street, not knowing that she had seem them both for the last time.

At the end of the street stood the ancient church, its white walls festooned with the twigs and leaves of the chestnut trees which grew nearby. Bruno Miller and his two comrades-in-arms were standing together near the wall; the young Nazi found the corner a useful lookout, and he stood as if waiting to pounce on his prey. His blond hair was visible under his light field cap with its Nazi emblem; his sandy coloured eyebrows traced two curves over his wide, irregular nose and his thick pursed lips. With his wolfish green eyes and his smallpox-scarred face he gave the impression of a rough, coarse type.

Bruno Miller was born in the working class section of Hanover. From a very early age he associated with criminals and spent some years in jail. His criminal education was developed and refined in the Hitler youth movement, where his outlook on life was confirmed, and he became a fanatical Nazi. His brutality and blind obedience to his superiors helped him advance rapidly to the rank of sergeant. During the infamous “Crystal Night” in Germany in November 1938, Bruno Miller and others of his like joyfully desecrated Jewish shops and dwellings, beat up Jews, and profaned synagogues. It was then that he first tasted the pleasure of irresponsibility and the power of a long knife; henceforth his lust for Jewish blood grew even greater.

When Hitler invaded Poland, Miller was in one of the first Panzer divisions to enter Kalish. It was then he made a wager with two of his army friends that he would, with his own hand, murder 1,000 Jews before Christmas.

Bruno Miller was fussy about his victims: he wanted only young, typical looking Jews, for whom he had a pathological hatred. He kept a small notebook in which he carefully noted down each murdered Jew. By the time he had marched through Sieradz, Zdunska Wola, Lodz and other towns, his small machine gun had ended the life of 123 young people. Against each murder was written he date and place of execution.

Bruno Miller had his own special method of shooting his victims. He would sit on his motorcycle, his gun resting against the handlebars, his right eye screwed up, observing the street; immediately he noticed a suitable victim he would beckon with his finger, as if to ask an innocent question; when the young man came within 5 feet of him, Miller would shoot him cold-bloodedly. As he preferred his victims to die instantaneously, he aimed at the heart.

There were occasions when Miller was uncertain whether or not his intended victim was a Jew; at such times he received much assistance from young hooligans, and even older Poles, whose blood boiled at the sight of a Jew. They would shout out the one curse they had quickly learnt from the Germans: “Zyd! Jew! Jew!”..

And now Bruno Miller was sitting on his motorcycle at the crossing of two streets in Lowicz, under the shadow of an ancient church, waiting to pounce on his next victim. On the opposite corner stood his two army friends, waiting to view his next spectacular murder; after every such murder Miller held a beer party, to which his two friends were invited. So now they stood on the corner making fun of the passing Poles, and laughing coarsely at young women. Their faces gave evidence of years of heavy drinking.

As Miller and his friends waited one-eyed Shmuel and his son Ichel were walking down towards Stanislawskiego St. They had already passed the large orchard on the right hand side, and were nearing the small dead end street. There was no one at the well drawing water. A homeless dog with a long curly tail gave them a surly look and splashed some water into the gutter. A few grey sparrows rose twittering suddenly from the trees, startled by the

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men's firm tread. There was no one about… it was as if the street was deserted.

The last house in the street, opposite the dead end, had a steep tiled roof and heavy, green painted shutters. In this house had lived two Jewish families – rag dealers. Now it appeared empty. The windows facing the street had been broken, and the wind was gently rippling the strips of black paper which had been used to prevent light from showing during the bombardment.

Shmuel stepped forward and peered through one of the broken panes of glass. He could not see a soul. The furniture lay scattered as if after a storm. His heart tightened in pain at the sight of such destruction.

Ichel, meanwhile, had walked on a little further, then turned to see what his father was doing. Ad he turned back, his eyes met those of Bruno Miller. The swastika on Miller's field hat threatened danger; Ichel's muscles tightened and a hot flush spread over his body. He started to retreat, fearing that piercing glance, but at that very moment the German beckoned him forward; “Come on Jew, but make it quick, make it quick, blast you!”. Ichel took a few uncertain steps forward, as if unsure of what he should do; his eyes opened wider, and it appeared as if he were about to spring at the German… but in that instant a gunshot cut the air. The birds rose from the trees with a wild flapping of wings, and scattered in all directions.

Convulsively, Ichel's hand went to his heart, and a cry froze at his lips. His head spun dizzily, the chestnut trees above seemed to be falling on top of him. He fell backwards, his right foot caught beneath him. A thin trickle of red blood coloured the stones on which he lay. His body on the street looked like a bird with broken wings. His eyes were glazed, and his mouth dripped blood.

Bruno Miller got off his motorcycle and walked over to the body. A maniacal smile spread over his ugly face. Roughly he kicked the dead boy and burst out laughing. He shouted triumphantly to his watching friends: “A first class shot, Hans! A typical Jew! And a perfect shot!”.

With a self-satisfied air he hung his rifle around his neck and put his hand into his coat pocket, to write down the details of his latest victim. But these fingers were suddenly paralyzed: fear overcame him, and he found it difficult to breathe. His wolfish eyes bulged out of their sockets, his face contorted into a horrible grimace, his tongue pushed out between his teeth. The veins in his neck swelled and burst. A shudder passed through him. He felt as if iron pincers were pulling him down from behind, iron pincers of fantastic strength. At the back of his neck he could feel the hot, panting breath of a man. Then the unknown attacker lifted him high into the air, and threw him onto the ground.

The notebook fell from his lifeless fingers; his gun clattered onto the cobbled stones.

There he lay: Bruno Miller with his split skull, at the feet of his latest victim.

Above him stood one-eyed Shmuel, his legs wide apart, his right foot covering the Nazi's notebook. The old Jew was breathing heavily; a haze obscured his vision, and in his head a hammer pounded. He felt as though his shirt was stuck to his skin, but he had not the strength to move away; it was as if he were quite paralyzed. Only his good right eye still functioned, looking down at his dead son whose face stared up towards heaven. Tears rolled from his eyes and salted his lips..

Nearby lay the mutilated Nazi. He groaned faintly, then his head fell back into the pool of blood that flowed from his split skull.

Suddenly Shmuel felt blows rain onto his head and shoulders. As if from a great distance he heard wild angry cries. At first he felt no pain, and offered no resistance to his attackers, who were of course the two Nazis who had watched stupefied at the sudden and unexpected turn of events. Now they were determined to revenge themselves for the death of their friend.

With murderous rage they beat the Jew over the head, and his black fur hat fell to the ground. His silvery hair became reddened.

Then, quite suddenly, Shmuel felt pain. It was this pain which aroused him from his paralyzed state. Within him was a burning, a fierce anger. His fists curled into two balls of lead, and with his last strength he threw himself onto the Nazi behind him. Through a crack in his blood-covered right eye he saw the German's face screw up in pain. Shmuel held him around the neck and dug his long fingernails into the Nazi's veins. His victim clawed the air with his hands.

Just then there came the sharp sound of a rifle shot…a bullet pierced Shmuel's chest. The world around became dark, and he sank slowly to the ground like an uprooted tree.

In the distance, a small gutter snip was running and calling out “A Jew has killed a German! A Jew has killed a German!”. And the wind carried his voice together with the chestnut leaves far down the street, far far away.

Shmuel's swollen right eye rolled out of its socket and gazed up at the cloudy sky, as if declaiming: “See, O Heaven, and witness what sort of death came to me and my son!”.

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Who's Who
of Lowicz-Born Personalities and their Descendants

Retyped by Helen Rosenstein Wolf

ALBECK, HANOKH. Israel, Educator; B. Lowicz, Poland, 1890. P. Shalom and Rachel (Brot); Ordained Rabbi 1907; Ph.D. U. of Vienna, 1921. Settled in Pal., 1936. Prof. emeritus, History of Halakha and Aggada. Heb.. U.: Jerusalem since 1937, Prof. 1936—57; Lecturer Hochschulle fur die wissenschaft des Judentums Berlin, Germany 1926-1935. (Who's Who in World Jewry) N.Y. 1965.

BARDENSTEIN, Rena (Nee Lamed). B. 1922. Detroit, Mich. P. Louis and Esther (nee Bucksztajn). Graduated University of Michigan, Teacher: Majored in music. Her husband is Dr. Max Bardenstein.

BAUM, Yeshayahu Adv. B. 1939. P. Itzchok and Rachel (Nee Zaide) Baum, Ed. Tichon H. T.A. Israel. Degree of Law. University of Jerusalem 1964. 2 y. Service with Zahal. Rank: Lieutenantm Prosecutor. Married.

BENDER, Minnie, B. 1944 in Melbourne. P. Motel and Pauline. Ed. Elwood state and Central High school, also 8 years Secondary Yiddish School of Sholem Aleichem. Then Beit Mizrachi for 2 y. (Hebrew Studies). Attended Toorak Teachers College. Diploma for infant teaching.

BERGMAN, Janette Rebecca. B. 26-5-1944. P. Late Symche Leib and Nechuma (nee Bialek) Bergman. Ed. Moonee Ponds West State School. Moonee Ponds Central School 1957. 3rd Form to Matric – U. High School 1963. U. Physical Education Diploma; Secondary Teacher College; Trained Secondary Teachers Certificate (T.S.T.C.) Tennis: Represented Australia in Maccabiah Games in Israel 1965.

BERGMAN, Mordechai (Max) (Brother of the above) B. 23-7-1941 (Deceased 4th Dec. 1962). Schools: As above 1958. U. Brilliant Student of the Second Years Faculty of Medicine. (Honors both years).

BRISSON, Betty. B. 1941 Melbourne. P. Joseph (Brzezinski) and Rose (nee Helmer). Ed.: McRobertson Girls High School to 6th Form. Melb. U.P: Graduated as a Bachelor of Arts March 30th, 1963, Madricha of Betar and member of Melbourne Committee (Mifkada) of Betar.

Received the award of the Zionist Organization for a year's study at the Machon L'Madrichel Chutz L'Aretz, in Jerusalem, Israel. In January 1960 was an Australian delegate to World Conference of Betar, Israel. The same year, returned to Australia and became the leader of Betar Melbourne. In 1964 began work on Economic Research in Victoria for the Commonwealth Government.

BROTT, Samuel Michael. B. 7th Dec. 1941, Melbourne, Australia. P. Shimon and Cyril Brott. Ed.: Mt. Scopus College; Melbourne High School, Melb. University, Degree Bachelor of Law 1964. Admitted to the Bar 1965.

BROTT, Meier Dr., (Brother of the above). B. 5th Nov. 1943. Melbourne, Ed. Mt. Scopus Melb.; High School, Melb. U.; Degree Doctor of medicine and Surgery, 1966.

COOPER, Toni Dr. B. 1939 in Sidney, P. Reuben Piontkowski and Stella. First education: Cranebourne Public School which Toni finished with distinction at the age of 15. Studied at the Sydney U. Grad. Bachelor of Science with high honors at the age of 19, Australian Government sponsored his post-graduate studies at the U. of Oxford where he became Master of Science at the age of 21. At the age of 26 he was conferred with the title Doctor of Science, plus Dr. Professor. Lecturing at Oxford. Author of a scientific thesis which was published in the World Scientific Journal and praised by scientists the world over.

COOPER, Peter. B. 1944 in Sydney (younger brother of the above), Ed. Cranebrook Public School, finished brilliantly with honors at the age of 15. Won scholarship to the University of Sydney and became pharmacist at age of 20.

CUKIER, Moshe. B. 1943. Tel Aviv (brother of Gross Cukier). Ed. Yeshivat Darom. Graduated Bar Ilan Univ. Degree: Bachelor Sc.

DANBY, (Brett) Cipa Mrs. B. 1923 in Lowicz, P. Samuel and Malka Brott. Graduated U. Melb. U. B.A. LL.B Barrister and Solicitor of the Supreme Court of Vic. Australia. Married

EISMAN, John. B. 1920 in Lowicz. P. Szyja and Sura Rivka Eisman. Ed. State School, Lowicz. Arrived in Australia 1937. Settled in Sydney. Started Commercial activities in 1948. Director of U.I.A., Chairman of Bequests of J.N.F, NSW., Exec. Member of Fed. J.N.F., Australia; Founding member of the Adulam project including G.G. of Australia. Committee member of Chamber of Commerce. First president of Lowiczer Society of Sydney.

FISHER, Aron. B. 1945, Tel Aviv. P. Moshe and Tova (nee Fiszman) Fisher. Ed.: Tichon Zeitlin, T.A. 1962. Served in Nachal 1962.-64. Hebrew U. of Jerusalem branch T.A. Economics and Political Science. President of Israeli Students Federation (Econom. & Commerce). Delegate to Holland and Canada.

FLINT, Jerry. B. 1931. Detroit. P. Beita Flint (nee Margolis). Ed. Wayne U. B.A. M.A. Ec. Journalist; Leading writer in Wall Street Journal, N.Y.

FRANKEL, Max (Menachem Mendel) B. 1925, Lowicz, Poland. Arrived in Australia 1932. P. Akiva and Esther Miriam. Ed. Melbourne High School 1944. Graduated Melbourne U.; 1952. Law L.L.B. Solicitor.

FUKS-FAJEEMAN, Miriam. B. 1938, Warsaw. P. Yeshayahu and Mina (nee Finkelsztajn), Ed.: Tichon Chadashi. Tel Aviv, Israel. B.A. Hebrew U., Jerusalem, 1962. Post graduate M.A. 1965; Associated co-worker of Prof. Mager in research of microbiology.

GLASSER, Fay (nee Flint). B. 1927, (Sister of Jerry Flint), Detroit. Graduated Wayne U. B.A. Dipl. Ed. Teacher in Ford High School, Detroit.

GOLD, Sam (Brother of Levy Pearl). B. 1935 in Sydney. Studied at the Sydney U. Became Pharmacist.

GOLD, Norton (Brother of above two). B. 1944 in Sydney. Studied at the Sydney U. Graduated as Bachelor of Pharmaceutical.

GMACH, Yehuda Leib (Lionel). B. 1943, Paris: P. Shiya Jacob and Beila (Nee Lewkowicz). Graduated Lycee Voltaire, Paris, 1959. Left the same year for Israel. Joined the Israel army in 1960 and served for 2 ½ years in rank of sergeant. Has been presented to the late Pres. Ben-Zvi as the best member of his unit at the annual army ceremony on the eve of Yom Ha'atzmauth.

GRABER, Tina (nee Yeshon). B, 1941. Sister of Dr. Yeshon. Graduated N. Western U. of Chicago. Diploma: Teacher in Mathematics. Married to Dr. Graber.

GREEN, Harry (Berel Hersh) Dr. B. 1933. Melbourne. P. Itzchok & Maria Grinbaum (nee Bialek). Matr.

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From University High 1950. Melb. U.: Degree Dr. Medicine and Surgery 1956. Married. At present residing in Rome.

GREEN, Freda (Mrs. Manes), Sister of the above Dr. Green (Greenbaum). B. 1939, Melbourne. Finished University High 1956. Graduated Melb. Conservatorium. Post-Grad. Juillard School of Music N.Y. U.S.A. 1958. Married. At present residing in Vienna.

GREENBERG, Charles. B. 1908, Lowicz. P. Joseph and Rachel Greenberg. Ed. Cheder Chodosh Ivri. Left Lowicz, 1922. Studied N.Y. City College, Brooklyn Law School. Post graduate M. L.B.B. Attorney at Law at 16 Court St. N.Y.

Served in the U.S. Army 1942-1945. Fought in the battle in Belgium in the rank of sergeant. Wounded in action. Recipient of Distinguished Purple Heart Medal, Leader infantry.

GREENBERG, Ervin. Usher Att. Of Law. B. 1906 in Lowicz (Y. brother of the above). Ed. Brooklyn College. Gr. B. of Science.

GROSS-CUKIER, Esther. B. 1938. Tel Aviv. P. David and Hephzah (nee Lewin) Cukier. Ed. Tichon Zeitlin T.A. Israel. Graduated Bar Ilan Univ.; 1960 degree. Chemistry and Physics. Married 3 children. High School teacher in Tiberias. At present at the Seminary Kfar Chabad.

HILMAN, Henry (Helman) Dr. B. 1930, Lowicz, Poland. P. Chaim and Cywia Helman. Arrived in Australia 1937. Ed.; North Sydney High School 1947. Graduated U. of Sydney . M.B.B.S. – M.R.A.C.P. At present residing Melbourne. Married.

HERMELIN, Henrietta. B. 1934. Detroit, Mich. P. Irving (Izrael) and Frances. Began studying Ballet at 4 but gave up at the age of 12 and picked up dance again at 16. Training with Fanny Aaronson, Detroit, Mich. While pursuing her studies at the U. of Michigan, she participated in the U. theatre. She played afterward in four Shakespearian productions. Henrietta performed with the American Mime Theatre in N.Y. City. In 1958 she toured India and Europe with the Wayne Theatre group, where she was highly praised by the theatre critics. Miss H. graduated from Central High School and received her B.A. degree from the U. of Mich. where she later worked on her M.A. and in the meantime she married.

KILBERT, Simcha Benjamin. Dentist. B. 1907, Lowicz. P. Mendel & Sura Rojza Kilbert. Ed. Public School. Studied at Szkola Zawidiwa Dentystow, Warszawa, 1933-35. During W.W. II a refugee in Russia. Joined the Polish Forces and served in A. F. Unit; Returned to Poland at the end of 1944. Attended Course at Stomatoloqiczny Wydzial Zdrowia, Lodz, 1947 and in 1954 Akademia Medyczma. Since 1957 in Israel. Married. Residing in Bnei Brak where he has his dental practice.

KLEIN, Anatol Norman. B. 1932, May 15, N.Y. P. Hilel and Isko (nee Kohn) Klein. Ed. Public School 173, N.Y.; High School; Music and Art; 4 y. art study in Art Student League; Graudated University of Michigan Ann Arbor. Degree: B.A. Sc. Post grad. 1 year Columbia U.; 2 y. Harvard U. (M.A.) Back to Michigan Ann Arbor U. Degree Ph.D. Anthropology. Prof. in Oriental Inst. For Research.

LEVY, (nee Gold) Pearl. B. 1941 in Sydney. P. Feiwel and Eva (nee Sachaczewski) Goldwasser. Studied at the Sydney U. and graduated as physiotherapist.

LINDEE, Bracha. B. 1931. Detroit, Mich. (Younger sister of Bardenstein). B.A. Graduated University of Wayne, Mich. Mother of 3 children. Postgr. Studies.

LESZCZYNSKI, Szulim. B. 1902, Lowicz. P. Abraham and Cywia (nee Riterband). Ed. High School, Pietrkow Tryb. Poland. Graduated with L.L. B. University of Warsaw 1929. Married one son; since 1948 residing in Paris.

LESZCZYNSKI, Wolf (Wewek). B. 1908, Lowicz (younger brother of the above). Ed. Gimnazjum Lowicz and Gostynim Poland. Graduated Warsaw Technical school (Politechnicum) as Architect 1938. Since 1956 in Paris.

LESZCZYINSKI, Julek (Yidel). B. 1909 Lowicz (Youngest brother of the above). Ed. Lowicz Gimnazjum. Graduated Warsaw Univ.; Faculty of Law 1936. After II W. Prosecutor of Sp. Penalty Court, Lodz (Sp. Sadu Karnego). Delegated by Polish Govt. to the Jew. Commission for the exam. of atrocities committed by the Nazis in Chelmno; Author of Documentary of atrocities committed by the Nazis for the Ministry of Justice in Warsaw.

NEZER, Marc Moshe. Eng. B. 1935, Jerusalem. P. Jacob & Frania (nee Lipszyc) Nezer. Ed. Beit Sefer Amaml; Technion, 1955. Served in Israel Army 1955-1958 in rank of Lt. Took part in Sinai Campaign. Postgraduate – Brown U. Providence, U.S.A,: Degree Bachelor of Sc. 1963; Joined the Western Electric Co. and continued higher studies at the Northeastern U. Graduated with M.A. Sc. 1966. Married and residing in Woburn, Mass. U.S.A. Nezer's scientific essays appear regularly in the “Western Elect. Engineer” U.S.

MARGOLIS, Suzan. B. 1938, Detroit, Mich. P. Nusen and Ethela Margolis. Graduated U. of Michigan, B.A. of Econ.

MARGOLIS, Meier. B. 1938 in Jacksonville, Fa. P. Rabbi Morrice David and Matilda Margolis. Ed. Graduated U.S. L.A. Elect. Eng.

PEPPER, David. B. 1917 in N.Y. P. Irving and Fanny Ann Pepper. Degree: C. B.A. – Univ. of N.Y & City College. Served 5 years in the U.S. Army during W.W. II and has been stationed in Britain and Europe.

PORAT (Elenewajg) Samuel Dr. B . 1938, Lowicz. P. Eng. Hersz and Helenka (nee Natan) Elenewajg. Ed.: St. Andrews Public School, Bucharest, Rumania; Tichon – Haifa, Matr. 1956. Took part in Sinai Campaign in rant of Lt. After demob. In 1959, Edited Hebrew Youth Magazine (1959-60), 'Shabetz Nah' and wrote adventure stories of Tarzan in serial booklets. For his journalistic publications received thank letters among them from the Mayor of Haifa, Mr. Aba Khoushy. Won 1st prize for an essay in the Yedioth Aharonoth 1955; In 1960/61 entered U. Dekanat Der Medizinischer Fakultat, in Vienna, Austria; in 1966

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Lowiczer in the Australian Army
During World War II

Retyped by Helen Rosenstein Wolf

FIGLARZ, Abraham (Fink), born 20th Dec., 1914, in Lowicz. Parents: Elia and Hena. Education: Public School. Profession: Bookkeeper. Arrived in Australia in 1938. Enlisted as volunteer in AIF, on 8th February, 1941. Served in 2nd Australian Division all over Australia in rank of corporal almost 4 years until demobilization.

Since arrival resides in Sydney, N.S.W.

HERSZKOWICZ, Shmulik. Born 1915, in Lowicz. Parents: Bakers Aaron Nusan and Malka. Profession: Tailor. Volunteered in 1941. Wounded in action in New Guinea and died from wounds 8 years later in Sydney, where he had settled after arrival in Australia, in 1937.

HILLMAN, (Helman) Gershon, born in Lodz, where his Lowiczer parents settled after their marriage. Parents: Abraham and Leah. Came to Australia in 1936. Education: Intermediate. Volunteered in 1942. Served with 2nd AIF, 25/5 Infantry Battalion, 7th Division. Saw active action in Borneo. Served over 3 years overseas.

Mr. Hillman resides in Sydney, N.S.W. where he settled after arrival to Australia.

KEEN (Krakower) Chaim, born Nov., 1921, in Lowicz. Parents: Zelig and Sarah (nee Goldberg). Arrived in Australia in 1928. Profession: Tailor. Volunteered at the end of 1939, but was not accepted because of too young age. Again enlisted in 1942. Education: Intermediate. Bondi Beach Public School.

Served overseas with the Army Service Corp0s in Port Moresby, Aitape, Lae Rabaul and Bougainville I. (Solomon Islands. Was wounded during action. Demobilized in 1946, acted as I.Q. Personnel. Resides in Sydney, N.S.W.

KEEN, (Jack) Osher Pesach, younger brother of Chaim. Born in 1926 inLowicz. Arrived in Australia as an infant at the age of 2 years. Education: Intermediate, Bondi Beach Public School. Volunteered in April, 1944. Served all over Australia over two and a half years in rank of corporal. Resides in Sydney, N.S.W.

KURCBAUM (KURC), Abraham, born 1915, in Lowicz. Parents: Jacob and Rachel. Arrived in Australia in 1938. His wife Sarah (nee Brott) died in a car accident. K. volunteered in 1941. Accidently died in an army camp.


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