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Who and Where
Biographies (cont.)

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[Page XCIV]

   

Moshe Zalman Rusak
(Photo)

Son of Jakov. Born in Dzialoszyn and died there at age 60 in 1919.


Chaya Rusak
(Photo)

Daughter of Kojfman and Nakha Lewkowicz. Born in Dzialoszyn. She died at age 68 in Dzialoszyn in 1928.


Jack Rozen

Son of Isidore and Mary. Born in New York on the 24th of June 1915. He married Annie Drajz on the 4th of February 1938. Their son, Matthew, was born on the 12th of March 1941 and their daughter, Margie, on the 11th of June 1941, both in New York.

Jack Rozen has been a member of the Zaloshiner (Dzialoszyn) Erste Chevra Anshei Bnei Achim in New York for many years.


Isidore Rozen (Yitzhak Risak) and Mary
(Photo, Isidore Rozen)
(Photo, Mary Rozen)

Son of Moshe and Chaya. Born in Dzialoszyn on the 10th of October 1890. He married Mary Staszewski, the daughter of Josef and Ruda, at age 19. She was born on the 10th of July 1892 in Dzialoszyn.

He was forced to emigrate by the trouble in his small shtetl endured by all of the young men who through the reactionary times in the period of 1905 as well as by the difficulty of achieving a respected life enabling him to support a wife.

He left Dzialoszyn with 10 rubles in his pocket and with the address of cousins in America whom he did not know. He came to America in November 1919. The telegram that he had sent to his cousins had been put aside and forgotten by them because it was then the season* and none of them had

(Photo, Annie Druz Rozen)

time to come to take him from the ship. He sat for three days in Castle Garden** until a landsman [man from the same town], Zuken Rozental, took mercy on him and took him from there.

*[Translator's note: probably a reference to a heavy work period for the clothing industry]

**[Translator's note: Immigration to Castle Garden ended in December 1891; he most likely was kept on Ellis Island.]

When he arrived in New York, he began to work in a shop for three dollars a week and,

[Page XCV]

as was usual, not having any trade, began by cleaning up the shop and very quickly became a foreman in his cousins' ladies waists [garment covering the shoulders to the bottom of the hips] shop.

His parents wanted him to return to Poland and appear for Russian military conscription. However he decided not to do so and used all means to remain in America and decided to bring his wife, who had remained in Poland, to America. And on the 10th of October 1913***, his wife, Mary, did come to New York. For a time, they both worked and started a small business. The business did not begin so well. More than once they had to give up and start anew. His family grew with three children during this time – two sons and a daughter. Later, Rozen went into business with a partner and after a certain period of difficulty, business grew better from day to day.

***(The date must be incorrect because it is stated that her husband arrived in 1919.)

After the First World War his wife kept the promise that she had given to her parents and she traveled to her home city with her children to see her parents and rejoice with them.

All three children received a college education and today they are in business partnership with the Rozen family.

They were only able to bring over three sisters and brothers from the large family they had left in Poland.

The Rozen family generously supports all Jewish institutions and they have never forgotten their old home.

Isidore Rozen is a long time active member of the First Zaloshiner (Dzialoszyn) Erste Chevra Anshei Bnei Achim, treasurer of the Dzialoszyner Relief Committee and Chairman of the Loan Fund of the Progressive Friends in the Bronx.

Mary Rozen was the first president of the Dzialosyner Ladies Auxiliary, first president of the Star Charity Sisters, member of the Board of Directors of the Ladies Society for Friendship (a home for girls).

The Rozens responded warmly and generously to every appeal by the Czenstochower Relief Committee.

Their son Rubin was a lieutenant in the American army.

Chaya Waga-Rotman
(Photo)

Daughter of Jakov Tzwi and Beila Gitl Waga. Born in Czenstochow in September 1898. Her parents were middle class, pious people, particularly her mother, who placed a stamp of piety on her family, which consisted of two sons and two daughters. Her mother greatly helped the poor and needy. She herself would give charity and was an example for neighbors and friends. She hoped that her good deeds would give her a great reward in the other world. She would tell her children various stories from Jewish history to influence them to uphold the Jewish religious customs. And although she very much wanted to see her children [become] people with a worldly education, she was overcome with fear that they would be “spoiled” and, therefore it was difficult for Chaya Waga to obtain this education in a Jewish school, later at a Polish gymnasie.

Chaya Waga's father had a toy factory. He would sell his products in Russia. With the outbreak of the First World War, the factory had to close. After the war, he began to produce mirrors. He also showed his capabilities in this area. He had a strongly developed sense of invention; he loved to do everything himself. During the later years, his two grown sons helped him. The older one – Moshe – was a yeshiva student until age 15. Later he began to study bookkeeping and still other professions. He had an inclination toward singing and dreamed of becoming a khazan [cantor]. He studied with the city khazan, Ziskind Rozenblat, later in Abraham Ber Birmboim's school for khazonim. However, he ended his studies and again began to work with his father. But, years later, after he married Preger's daughter, Chana, and already had grown children, he again tried to become a khazan. He left for Warsaw and there studied in a school for khazonim. Coming back to Czenstochow, he prayed in the German shul on Shabbas Chanukah. A large audience came to hear him and his mother was very proud of her son.

Chaya Waga's young years began with the outbreak of the First World War. The belief that the war would end quickly held the young people back from every cultural activity. The Jewish cultural life of Jewish Czenstochow began some time later, and as Chaya Waga says, the first Jewish lecture by Rafal Federman about Dr. Chaim Szitlowski's, Jew and Man, made a deep impression on her. From that moment on, she began

(Photo, caption: Leyzer Rotman)

reading Yiddish books, was interested in Jewish problems and became close to the Yiddish language. She experienced this period together with her friend, Ester Fuks (today a teacher in Soviet Russia). The professional union of leatherworkers was organized in Czenstochow then. The secretary of the union was Shaul Landa. Under his influence, Chaya Waga and her friend began to help the union with its work. They became librarians in the union library and,

[Page XCVI]

in general, took part in the communal work of the union. A large number of the Jewish workers came together around the union, which was then located on Spadek Street. They were involved with varied cultural activities, in which Chaya Waga took an active part. Later an “education union for Jewish workers” was established in Czenstochow. Literary evenings, adult courses and a library and reading room were organized. She worked with her friends, Rafal Federman, Shaul Landa, Jakov Josef

(Photo, caption: the Waga Family)

Szarnonowiecki, Alkanah Khrabalowski, Mikhal Szlezinger (Dudek), Mikhal Alter, Moshe Weksler, Josef, Szajnweksler, Moshe Berkensztat, Leibish Berkowicz, Fradl Brat, Hershl Gotajner, Shmuel Frank, the Finkelsztajn brothers, Rayzel Frajtag and others. One of the most important tasks was to organize a children's home that later was named after Y. L. Peretz. Chaya Waga was a teacher's aide to Josze Shtam. At the same time, she completed two Frobel courses in Polish under Majge Zalcman. [Friedrich Froebel is the German educator credited with founding kindergarten education.] A year later she took over the leadership of the second children's home – Fareinikte [“United”]. She was connected with the children's homes and with the Jewish secular schools in Czenstochow for four years.

Chaya Waga met Rafal Federman while doing communal work and became an intimate friend of his and this had a great effect on her and broadened her horizons for communal work. For many years, the mutual friendship strengthened and encouraged her. However, further chances in life changed her way of life. The communal work helped her bear and softened her hard experiences. She led the children's home in Warsaw for three years, one year in Nowo-Radomsk and one year in Grodno, where she also established the children's home.

Chaya Waga also took part in political life simultaneously with her cultural work. She was a member of the S.S. [Social Zionists], later Fareinikte [United], took part in the professional movement, was a member of the political council and participated in the meetings of the party. She was a candidate in the election to the city council in Czenstochow. After the dissolution of the Fareinikte party, she withdrew from political life. The growth and flourishing of the Jewish school system was her ideal. She thought of this period as the finest of her youth.

In 1927 she met B. M. Rotman in Poland, whom she married. They came to America the same year. She worked here for a time in the Sholom-Aleichem Children's Home. Later she traveled to Europe with her husband and they also visited Czenstochow.

Today she lives in New York with her husband and son, Leyzer, who was born in August 1934.

By a miracle, of her family in Poland, her brother, Shlomoh, and his wife, Rena and their son, Ludwig, who hid for 22 months in one of the Czenstochower bunkers, were saved from Hitler's beasts. Her brother also wrote a diary* of over 300 pages about his survival during the Hitler regime in Czenstochow. The remaining members of her family – her parents, her brother, Moshe, and his wife and two children perished during the war. Her youngest sister, Feygele, died after a difficult illness in Bialystok in 1937. Of her hundreds of friends from her hometown, Czenstochow, with whom she was connected for more than half her life, only a few individuals survived.

For her, the coming of Rafal Federman to America at the time of the Second World War as a refugee thanks to the Jewish Workers Committee was a moment of rejoicing in sincere, devoted friendship. She in now active in the United Czenstochower Relief Committee in New York and took part in the publication of the book, Czenstochower Yidn.

*[Translator's note: a translation of Churban Czentochow, the published version of the diary, appears at
http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/Czestochowa2/Czestochowa2.html.]

Max Rozenblat

Son of Haim Shimeon and Chava. Born in Nowo-Radomsk on the 1st of October 1888. He came to Czenstochow in 1902.

Max Rozenblat lived in Paris for several years; there he married Rochel Gutman and came to America in 1915. He is a member of the Czenstochower Young Men's Society in New York. Their two sons – Haimy, Ph.D and Benny volunteered to join the American army.


Joe Rozenblat

Son of Haim Shimeon and Chava. Born in Nowo-Radomsk in 1896. He moved to Czenstochow and he came to America on the 16th of January 1921. He is an active executive member of A.F.F.O. Br. 11, Czentochower United Relief Comm-

[Page XCVII]

ittee in New York and of the Czenstochower Yidn Book Committee, as well as the Kerman-Rozenblat Family Circle. He married Bella Rid.


Sidney Rubin

Son of Yitzhak and Lena. Born on the 15th of November 1902 in Czenstochow. Came to America in December 1912.


Irving Rubin

Son of Yitzhak and Lena. Born on the 14th of July 1910 in Czenstochow. Came to America in December 1911.


Saul Rubin

Son of Yitzhak and Lena. Born in May 1907 in Czenstochow. Came to America in December 1912.


Dovid Rozenfeld
(Photo)

Born in Lodz. He died at the age of 31, while serving in the Russian army in Mukden during the Russo-Japanese War.

Dovid Rozenfeld was the father of Regina Rozenfeld-Kuperman.


Moshe Rubel
(Photo)

Son of Zelig and Leah. Died at the age of 82 in Czenstochow.


Feyga Rukhel
(Photo)

Daughter of Wolf and Dobra. Died at the age of 82 in Piotrokow.


Ziser and Sheindl Rudnicki
(Née Fayner)

They died in Czenstochow.


Shlomoh (Sam) Rabinowicz

Son of Mordekhai Yisroel and Sara Gela. Born in 1896 in Sieradz. Came to America from Czenstochow in 1913. He married Yehudis Jarow. His son-in-law, Yitzhak Flekman, served in the American army as a lieutenant.


Klara and Moshe Radosz

Son of Mendel and Breindl. Born in Czenstochow in 1883. Member of the Arbeter Ring branch 471. His sons – Alan and Herbert – served in the American army.


(Photo, caption: Moshe Zalman Rozen)

Shmuel Ruk
(Photo)

Born in Czenstochow. His father was a tailor and taught his son the same trade. During the First World War, he, like many others, left for Germany to work. He came to America in 1923. Here he took part in the work of the Czenstochower Relief Committee in New York and also organized and led the Czenstochower Youth Club.

When the Central Committee of Patronat was founded in New York in 1933 to support the political arrestees in Poland he was elected secretary and remained in this office until 1935.

A severe illness cut short his young life. He died in May 1935.

Honor his memory!


Yitzhak Rikman
(Photo)

Son of Haim Leib and Meita. Born on the 26th of December 1880. Came to America in 1900. Member and Vice President of Young Men.

[Page XCVIII]

Ruchl Rikhter
(Photo)

Daughter of Leibish and Brandl Altman. Born in Przyrow on the 10th of July 1894. Came to America from Canada in September 1914. She was one of the active members of the executive of Czenstochower branch 261 Arbeter Ring in New York. Chairlady for a long time of the Czenstochower Ladies Auxiliary and a member of the Czenstochower Yidn book committee. She died on the 17th of December 1944 in New York.


Meir Rembak
(Photo)

Son of Aizik and Keila. Born in Rebielice (Poland) on the 25th of February 1886. He came to America from London in 1921. In America, he was active in communal life and in the worker's movement. Was involved in the divisions within the Yiddish press on various communal and worker questions. He was an active member of the Czenstochower branch 261 of the Arbeter Ring in New York, United Czenstochower Relief in New York and other organizations. He died on the 13th of December 1943. At his death, the following organizations published resolutions of mourning: Loc. 9, I.L.G.W.U., the Calfiral Mutual Aid Society, Arbeter Ring, B. Schlesinger Cloak Finisher Br. Yid. Soc. Union and Medem Club in New York. Before leaving Poland, he lived in Czenstochow and was active in the professional workers movement and for a long time in the General Jewish Worker's Bund –the Bund, in Poland.


Nathan Rikhter
(Photo)

Son of Hershl and Frimet. Born in Czenstochow on the 5th of June 1894. Came to America on the 25th of November 1913. He is an active executive member of the Czenstochower Regional Union in Detroit. His son, Eli, served in the American army.


Zalman and Chana Rikhter

In Memory!


Dovid Rikhtiger
Chicago

(Photo)

Son of Mordekhai and Ruchl. Born in Czenstochow on the 16th of October 1890. Came to America in 1909. He is a member of the Bendiner [Bedzin] Society, Arbeter Ring branch 176 and the Czenstochower Independent Union in Chicago.

He gave blood to the Red Cross eight times and wife, Roza, four times during the last war. His son, Louis, was a lieutenant in the American army.

Broyna Rajch
Detroit

(Photo)

Daughter of Shlomoh and Ester Kolin. Born in 1900 in Myszkow (Poland). Came to America from Czenstochow in 1922. She is a member of the Jewish Fraternal People's Order in Detroit. Her son, Sam, served in the American army.


Yehoshua Rikhter
(Photo)

Son of Ezriel and Blima Reyzl. Born in Lisowice (Poland) on the 12th of October 1913 and came to America in September 1914. He is a member of the Czenstochower branch 261 of the Arbeter Ring and of United Czenstochower Relief in New York.


[Page XCIX]

   

Joe Szaja
Passaic, N.J.

Mordekhai Szaja and his sons

by Morris Szaja

The Szaja family was counted among the oldest families in Czenstochow. Mordekhai “the lathe operator,” Szaja's father, presided over a large factory with approximately 50 workers. The factory operated in a primitive manner according to the circumstances of those times. A number of the workers ate and slept at the boss' place, and his wife, who was called “the mother,” took care of them.

Mordekhai Szaja was himself an experienced professional and tried to make his children into good professional people. He encouraged his five sons to open their own factories and received assurances from them that they would never become partners nor competitors, because only in this way could they live in peace. Indeed, the oldest son, Itsekl, manufactured chairbacks, rings and medals; Herman – glasses and games; Shayush – tobacco pouches and lighters; Matush – writing pens and pen holders, and Berish – thimbles. They actually remained friends, consulted each other about the conduct of their factories and helped each other.

Hundreds of Jewish workers were employed by the Szajas.

Of the Szajas, only two emigrated to America. One, Moshe (Morris) Szaja, the writer of these lines, a son of Itsekl Szaja, has been in New York since 1920. Here he married a Czenstochower girl – Sera Wajn, a daughter of Grunem Wajn. The second son married Mas' daughter, Nety, here.

There has been no news so far from Czenstochow that someone from the widespread Szaja family saved himself from extinction.

Mota Szapiro
(Photo)

Son of Mendl and Masha. Born in Nowo-Radomsk on the 2nd of January 1893. Came to America in 1913. He married Leah'ke Wales of Kozlowa Ruda [Kazlu Ruda] (Lithuania).

Mota Szapiro is an active member of the Nowo-Radomsker Society, in charge of hospitality for many years; executive member of the Relief Committee since its creation. Was an active member of Patronat for political arrestees in Poland. He belonged to the S.S. [Socialist Zionist] party in Radomsk.

(Photo, caption: Leah Szapiro)


(Photo, caption: Szapiro's family in Radomsk)

(Photo: caption: The Szapiro family)


Meir (Szerpinski) Sharp
Chicago

Son of Asher Anshel and Haya. Born in Warsaw on the 9th of February 1892. He married Lina Granek. Came to America in 1913. He is a member of the Arbeter Ring and of the Czenstochower Educational Union.

(Photo, caption: Lina Sharp)


Feigl Szikman

Daughter of Shmuel Borukh and Rywtsha Staszevski. Born in Zarki, Poland. Died in 1918 at the age of 47 in Zurich (Switzerland).

[Page C]

His two sons in Chicago – Sidney and Nathan served in the American army. [Translator's note: this sentence seems to be part of an incomplete entry.]


Mendl Shapiro

Son of Max and Lina. Born in New York on the 19th of March 1923. Killed in action on the 30th of June 1944 in India.

The Nowo-Radomsker Society decided to create a Relief Committee in his memory, a fund for orphan children in Europe. The fund already possesses around 1,500 dollars.

It is of added interest that in 1928, while Mendl Shapiro was in Metropolitan Hospital with a serious illness, he helped with the work of publishing the hospital's monthly publication, entitled “Echo.” Every month an article of fiction was published about the life of the sick in the hospital. His literary work was praised several times with awards.


Samuel (Shimkhah) Szhukhter
(Photo)

Born in Czenstochow in 1893. He came to America in 1910 and settled in Chicago. He graduated from elementary school, then from high school and in 1914 entered the University of Chicago as a student. He interrupted his education during the First World War and joined the American army with which he fought in France and Germany from 1917 to 1918. In the army, he achieved the rank of lieutenant and was assigned to the “intelligence” division.

In September 1919 he reentered the University of Chicago and graduated as a Doctor of Philosophy with awards in Romance languages in December of the same year.

He later joined the clothing industry where he was active as a labor representative in the executive committee of various well known clothing firms.

He now lives in Cincinnati, O., and is vice president of a large clothing manufacturing business.

During this entire time, he did not forget Czenstochow and on various occasions took part in the aid work for the home of his young years with smaller or larger contributions.


Mendl Szukhter
(Photo)

Mendl Szukhter, the child of a poor shoemaker from Tepergas [Pottery Street] 70 (Garncarska) in Czenstochow, with his intellectual development, education and place in communal life with the Jewish masses in Czenstochow, and then in America – occupies a place of honor among his brothers, comrades, friends and fellow fighters.

His name was a symbol of idealism, friendship and bond with his people and devotion to his ideal until the last minute of his life.

In the middle of all of the currents and storms of life that swept right and left – from S.S. (Socialist Zionists) to the general Poalei-Zion Party to the left Poalei-Zion and in the end – to the Communist Party – he remained the same: Prometheus, who is riveted to the earth of Jewish life, the dreams in the ghetto, the struggle for the survival of the Jewish people and for a new, free and healthy Jewish life.

He was the type from the Jewish multitudes who tore himself from the suffocating conditions and narrowness of the ghetto to a freer place on God's earth, equal to all of the people of the world.

* *
*

Mendl Szukhter was born in 1890 or 1891. His father was already an old man. And his mother died when he was still a young boy. He literally became a child of loneliness and need.

When still in his youth, Mendl began to study to be a tailor. In 1905, at age 15 or 16, he became one of the pioneers in the workers' group S.S. [Socialist Zionists] that was organized by Josef Kruk and Yitzhak Gurski. He left for London during the same year. He returned to Czenstochow a year later.

He was arrested in 1908 during an ambush by the police at the S.S. printing shop and in 1909 exiled to Siberia. He succeeded in escaping from there and after a short time arrived in America and settled in Chicago. Here he began to work with cloaks and threw himself into union activity with fervor, where he became one of the leaders.

(Photo, caption: Moshe Szwajcer)

At the same time he became active in the American S.T. (Socialist Territorialist) organization and one of the first pioneers of the Yiddish Radical School that the S.S. and P.Z. created. After the Balfour Declaration, he and the majority of the S.T. organization in America joined the Poalei-Zion party and, after the split, moved to the left Poalei-Zion and became one of its leaders.

The difficult situation of the Jewish masses in Europe after the First World

[Page CI]

War – the pogroms in Ukraine and in Poland – caused him to throw himself into the work of organizing public meetings in America against the pogroms and persecution. He became one of the most important leaders in the relief work and occupied an eminent place on the People's Relief Committee. In 1920 he was sent as a delegate to an aid conference in Berlin, visited Poland and brought along aid for a large number of people and communal institutions.

His visit to Europe – where he met face to face with the misfortune that the First World

(Photo: Mendl Szukhter at a meeting with landsleit)

War had left behind and with the need and suffering of the masses – made a deep impression on him and pushed him toward the left in the workers' movement. He became one of the organizers of the Jewish Workers Aid Committee and a fervid supporter of the Soviet Union. The Jewish colonization in the Soviet Union and the proclamation of a Jewish Autonomous Region in Biro-Bidjan inspired him. He became one of the founders of ICOR [organization of Yiddish speaking working class immigrants] and a member of its national executive.

However, simultaneously with communal work, he did not stop educating himself. He entered the University of Chicago. At first, he intended to study agronomy, but he later studied law (jurisprudence) – until he graduated as a lawyer in 1924. He was a teacher in a Yiddish school in a town near Chicago during the last of his studies.

As a lawyer, his popularity as a communal activist and campaigner for workers grew from day to day. He became an advocate and fighter for the rights of the masses, of the trade union movement and of everyone who needed legal help.

The Jewish masses in those years were more predisposed to the leftist movement. Mendl Szukhter, like hundreds of others, went with the storm, and in 1927 officially joined the Communist Party.

His glory and name as a communal activist and devoted comrade grew with the waves of the leftist movement. However, the year of crisis came in 1929 and the beginning of his tragic end.

During the attacks by Arabs on the Jewish settlements in Eretz-Yisroel, he had to appear at a mass meeting to justify the stand of the Communist Party in connection with the events there. However, he refused to do so and, therefore, was barred from the party. As a result he lost all of his communal support and began to fall from his communal pedestal.

However, later he again was taken into the party. Broken both spiritually and physically, he spent several months in a sanitorium, stopped practicing law and could no longer regain his strength.

His last salvation, where he believed he had found his footing, was his activity as a field organizer for ICOR. While in a town near New York, he did not feel so well and was taken to a hospital and there immediately died.

His name, his memory as a dear comrade from whom always radiated idealism, comradely love and boundless devotion to his people will never be forgotten.


Tovya Szuldinger
Detroit

Son of Dovid and Feigl. Born in Czenstochow on the 15th of September 1901. He came to America in 1920. He is a member of the Czenstochower Regional Union in Detroit.


Ahron Szuldinger
Detroit

Son of Moshe and Ruchl. Born in Janow in 1988 [Translator's note: most likely the date should be 1898.]. Came to America from Czenstochow on the 29th of March 1906. He is a member of the Zionist Organization. Married Gitl (Katy) Balantsow.


Joe Shumer
(Godl Szmulewicz)
Detroit

Son of Mordekhai and Mali. Born in Czenstochow in 1906. Came to America in 1921. He is a member of the Jewish National Union in Detroit.


Sam Shumer
(Shmuel Szmulewicz)
Detroit

Son of Mordekhai and Mali. Born in Czenstochow in 1907. Came to America in 1921. He is a member of the Jewish National Union in Detroit.

[Page CII]

Sholom Shumer (Szmulewicz)
Chicago

Son of Mordekhai Beinish and Mata. Born in Czenstochow on the 5th of July 1901. He married Gitl Grittz. Came to America in 1923. He is a member of the Czenstochower Education Society in Chicago.

Haim Leib Szwarc
(Photo)

Born in Rozprza, near Czenstochow, on the 15th of August 1883. The information is not certain because at that time for various reasons his parents neglected to report his birth at the correct moment. However, Haim Leib comes from Czentochow. The fact that he was born in Rozprza is the result of this: his father, Avigdor Brukasz [paver], at the time when Haim Leib's mother was in her last months of pregnancy, was at the court of the Rozpra rebbe paving the courtyard [Translator's note: most likely with cobblestones] and she came there to bring Haim Leib into the world. His bris [ritual circumcision] took place in the rebbe's court.

Haim Leib is descended from the Zigases. One of his uncles was a cantonist [forced to serve in the Russian army for 25 years] . A part of his family, as well as his brother, who received the name Bruder at a hearing in a Russian customs office, emigrated to America in the 1880's and here the divided clan branched out. This was the time when the Czenstochower shul named Chasam Sopher and the organization, Young Men, were founded. In 1904/05, additional members of the Zigas family came to America, many of them brought over by their relatives and parents. In the end they were held in great reverence and respect by their children. There has been no sign of life from those who remained in Poland.

(Photo, caption: Lina Szwarc)

(Photo, caption: Haim Leib Swarc's mother)

(Photo, caption: H. L. Swarc's wife and their daughter)

Only one, Harcke Zigar (Mendl's son), was saved. He was brought to America by the Jewish Worker's Committee and today he is in New York.

Haim Leibele raised himself in the streets of Czenstochow. It was during his childhood on Czike Street that he first showed his mischievousness and agility. He received the nickname Jaba [frog in Polish]. Haim Leibele began to go to kheder at age five. His malamed [teacher] was Yitzhak Kraser, a strict, angry Jew. However, Haim Leibele did not study with him for long. Instead of sitting in the kheder, he went around on the streets, to the old market and there hid himself as an assistant. This led to his father taking him away from Yitzhak the malamed and taking him to the new Talmud Torah to Tovya the malamed. However, Toyva did not have time to teach the children and in the meantime Haim Leibele helped a Christian potter make clay whistles. At age eight Haim Leibele became an assistant to another malamed – Reb Abraham'le. However, here, too, he exhibited his mischievousness and performed various pranks. At 11 he began to work in Mordekhai Dreksler's and Godl Wajnberg's factory for 45 kopeks a week for a workday from 6 in the morning to 9 at night.

In 1896, still not 13 years old, Haim Leibele began to work with a house painter – Ahron Goldberg. After a year of working, he already demonstrated the ability to paint a house and at age 14 he was earning three rubles a week. A short time later, a master painter took him to work in Bendin (Bedzin). Because of a grievance over wages that Haim Leibele had with the master painter and because of disputes that arouse from this, he crossed the Austrian border illegally and after wandering for a short time, he went to Krakow. Here he became a suspect and was detained by the police. However, after questioning in Czenstochow, he was freed. Despite the difficult winter, he traveled further, to Vienna. On the way he worked for a short time in Bilitz [Bielsko-Biala]. Then he arrived in Vienna. On Rosh Hashanah, he returned to Czenstochow. Absorbed with socialism and ideals of freedom from the other side of the border, Haim Leibele began to look for literature of this kind. His first step was to Henokh Lapidus. And here he met his current friend, Abo Kojfman. Haim Leibele began to write songs. This prevented him from being persecuted by the Czenstochower scoundrels. In addition, he was protected by his friends: Josef Hirsz Grajcer, Khasriel Stodola, Yakov Ber Zilber, Lipa Goldblum and Mordekha'le Beker. Haim Leibele began to take an interest in Yiddish theater. He would give recitations in the garden and even play roles. He brought actors – Pjornik, the blond Tzlava and Akslerod. He then began to write, to read and to paint. From this he earned money to support his sick father.

[Page CIII]

In 1904 he married Moshe Poznanski's daughter, Odl, and settled in Zurich. A short time later, he came back to Czenstochow. He led the first strike of the painters and won it. During the same year, when the Russian-Japanese War broke out, Haim Leibele escaped to his wife's uncle in Katowice. However, he was only there for a few days and he traveled further – to Mahrisch Ostrau [now Moravska Ostrava in Moravia, the Czech Republic] (then Austria). There he was welcomed by a committee for emigrants and after a short time became an active worker; he helped many of his own landsleit, who would pass through on their way to England, America, and so on. However, he did not remain in Mahrisch Ostrau for very long and in 1905 he arrived in London. He spent difficult days there. However, by chance he met several landsleit: Stadala – Ratbard, Yakov Ber Silver, Dovid Gotlib and others. He began to work as a painter with Gostinski (a brother of Gostinski in Czenstochow), at first earned three, then eight shillings a day and brought his friend Dovid Gotlib to work with him. Although there already were Czenstochower landsleit in London, such as Jankl Szakher's son, Avraham Wolf, Avraham Ber Muszin, Rivek Kantor and others, Haim Leibele joined with others and, in 1906, he was one of the co-founders of the Jewish Socialist Club. He gave theater performances among other activities organized by the club.

In 1906, Haim Leibele traveled to Canada. He came to Toronto where he met his friends, Moshe Dovid and Ahron – Czenstochower painters. He worked a short time in Toronto and in 1907 he came to New York. From the start, he went through very difficult times here. First he worked as a bread hauler, took part in a strike to bring the bread haulers into the bakery union and was one of those who led the strike to victory.

In 1908 he met Abo Kojfman and together they founded branch 251 of the Arbeter Ring. In 1914 he was one of the co-founders of the Czenstochower Aid Union and in 1916 he became its chairman. In 1922 he traveled as a delegate to Czenstochow with L. Szimkowicz with instructions to research conditions in the Jewish school-children's home named for Y. L. Peretz.

He moved to Chicago after 1925. Here he was one of the co-founders of the Czenstochower Aid Union; he was also in Detroit with instructions from the Relief Committee in New York.

In 1932 he moved to Los Angeles. Here he began his literary activity in the Arbeter [Ring] – he was very active in creating a dramatic section. He was one of the co-founders of an aid committee for Polish arrestees in Czenstochow with Joe Sztibl, Dovid and Yochoved Izrael, Harry Grauman, Fefer and Lina Szwarcz. Dr. Zanwil Klein joined later. The first organizing meeting took place on the 10th of May 1933. He also took part in the founding of the Food Workers Union. He was arrested for organizing a strike. However, after the trial, he was freed. He and his wife, Leah*, were very active in founding the Czenstochower Aid Union in Los Angeles. In 1936 he visited Honolulu and wrote a series of songs. He returned to Honolulu eight weeks later.

[*Translator's note: Earlier, her name is given as Odl.]

In 1938 he became one of the directors of the Central Jewish Committee and editor of the newspaper, Town Fair News.

In 1939 he visited Portland. Here he created more songs.

In 1941 he was in Chicago again.

Today he lives in Seattle, Washington with his wife, Leah, and his daughter, Beverly. Although far from his Czenstochower landsleit [countrymen], he is still bound with his most noble feelings to his birthplace and he dedicates much of his literary work to her and supports the Czentochowers in every way possible.

Yakob Stiller
Chicago

Son of Haim and Elka. Born in Klobutzk [Klobuck] on the 10th of September 1884. He marred Miriam Livak. Came to America in September 1910. He is a member of the Czenstochower Educational Society in Chicago.

Beverly Szwarc
(Photo)

Daughter of Haim-Leib and Leah. Born in 1930. She graduated from high school and is now studying in college.

Beverly Szwarc shows great poetic abilities. One of her poems is Rosh Hashanah, written in English and translated by H.L. Szwarc.

I

Today is yom-tom [holiday] across the world
There is a shiver in every heart
Rosh Hashanah:
My people stream from every street
And wish l'shana tova tikatevu [may you be inscribed for a good year]!

II

Tears appear pearl-like
From a people who struggle for their land:
The witness remains today
The koysel-maarovi [Western or Wailing] Wall.

III

The land of milk and honey
In the land of my holy patriarchs;
In the land where blood flowed,
Slaughtered, burned without compassion.


Morris Szwarc
(Pen name – Morris Swan)

(Photo)

Son of Louis Szwarc. Born in New York on the 19th of January 1908. Joined the American army on the 22nd of May 1943. Chosen to write biographies of military leaders in Washington. In

[Page CIV]

1944 chosen as the editor of the army newspaper, Wings. Held this post for seven months. In addition to this, Morris Swan wrote the editorials in the newspaper, Keep Them Flying and various articles for the newspaper, Alert. An artist and the daughter of a famous musician, Mr. Leo Birchanski, and Mrs. Betty Birchanski, a former principal in a high school in Odessa, Nora is the wife of Morris Swan.

(Photo, caption: Morris Szwarc with his wife and child)

Morris Swan was the literary editor of the News Press in Santa Barbara from 1937 to 1939. Simultaneously he was the editor of the Y.P. Rouny publishing house in the same state. Later he was called to The New York Times to be the literary critic. He held this post until he was called into the army.

He recently completed the historical novel, Margin of Ruin, which will soon be published.


Zanwel Szwiderski
(Photo)

Son of Yakov and Dobra. Born in Sieradz (Poland). Died at age 78, two days before Yom Kippur in 1937 in Czenstochow.

Odel Szwiderski
(Photo)

Daughter of Lipman and Feiga Lurisz. Born in Praszka (Poland). Died at age 81 in 1938 in Czenstochow.


Abraham Sztibel
Los Angeles, Cal.

Son of Wolf and Beila. Born on the 22nd of October 1892 in Czenstochow. Came to America in 1912. As a result of serving in the American army during the First World War, he became the commandant of the American Legion Post 394 in the state of Iowa. He supported the Czenstochower Relief Committee and the institutions that were assisted by it during his time in America. He is one of the founders of the Czentochower Aid Union in Los Angeles.

His son, Sidney, was a corporal in the American army.


Jack Sztibel
(Photo)

Son of Wolf and Beila. Born in Czenstochow on the 28th of August 1898. Came to America in 1928. His only son is named Joseph Barry.

In Czenstochow, Jack Sztibel belonged to the socialist Zionist party, Fareinikte [United]. In America, he became active in the Chicago Relief Committee in Los Angeles – one of the organizers of the Czenstochower Patronat for political prisoners in Poland and treasurer until the last minute of his life. He died on the 30th of May 1940 in Los Angeles.


Mordekhai Sztajer
Chicago

Son of Dovid and Ruchl. Born in Czenstochow in 1887. Came to American in 1911. His son, Henry David, served in the American army.


Hirshl Sztencel
(Photo)

The father of Mordekhai and Kopel. Died in Czenstochow in 1927.


Hana Sztencel

The mother of Mordekhai and Kopel. Died in Czenstochow in 1927.


Kopel Sztencel
(Photo)

Son of Hershl and Hany Ita. Born in Czenstochow on the 5th of July 1884. Came to America from Krakow in 1911. He is a member of the Independent Lodzer Society in Brooklyn.

[Page CV]

Mordekhai Josef Sztencel

Son of Hershl and Hana Ita. Born in Czenstochow on the 4th of May 1877. He married Ruchl Gliksman in 1902. Came to America on the 31st of July 1914. He is a member of the Independent Lodzer Society in Brooklyn. His son, Hyman, was a sergeant in the American army.


A. Sztencel

A Czenstochower poet celebrates oyneg Shabbos [Translator's note: literally, joy of Shabbos; often a gathering at which lectures are given or discussions are held] in London's Whitechapel

…It would be a sin for me, if I did not give special honor to the few individuals in London who toil with heartbreaking drudgery in order to maintain a burning literary light in the darkness of Jewish life in England.

The caring A. Sztencel is such a passionate toiler for Yiddish.

He is a Don Quixote of Yiddish, a lamed-vovnik [Translator's note: according to tradition, one of the 36 secret saints upon whom the survival of the world depends] of Yiddish.

He is the water carrier and wood chopper of the Yiddish word in London.

He is extremely eloquent in his love for Yiddish, zeal for Yiddish and, as a poet himself, in his Yiddish misery.

A believer in Yiddish literature, he feels, however, as a poet, the tragedy of the Yiddish language.

He publishes monthly notebooks, Loshn un Lebn [Language and Life] with great effort and financial hardship and the title itself indicates his great effort in its preparation with the help of Moshe Over and his devotion to the struggle to strengthen the position of the neglected Yiddish language in London.

I saw the embodiment of his passionate, self-sacrificing devotion to Yiddish and to Yiddish literature when we unexpectedly came to his small salon somewhere in devastated Whitechapel on the day of Shabbos, during the week of Passover, where he, Sztencel, led a weekly oyneg Shabbos.

He has been holding an interesting oyneg Shabbos for a long time, week in and week out. There could be thunder and lightening; bombs could fall on Whitechapel – he, Sztencel would not relinquish the hour when an audience of 100 people gathered as a result of his persistence to spend time with him in an atmosphere of Yiddish language, of Yiddish literature and of Yiddish music.

He organizes lectures on Jewish history for the group, celebrates literary holidays with the group, etc.

This picture, which was revealed before me, when we entered unexpectedly, was both stirring and emotionally moving.

The audience – 100 people, as said – consisted principally of the strata of older, ordinary Jews. The majority of them sat in caps. Women, several of them almost old women, wore kerchiefs.

Particularly from this fact alone, one can and one must be moved:

Simple people, Jewish people, come during the day on Shabbos to hear a Yiddish work from a Yiddish poet as they would once come to hear a preacher.

Halevay [may God grant] that there were more such gatherings. However the distress actually lies in the halevay.

Barely, 100 elderly people in a large London community.

We cannot fill our hearts with optimism concerning Yiddish in London from this.

I felt a cutting compassion for our Yiddish.

I also feel it in New York. But in New York the writers permit themselves, may they be strengthened, to display self confidence as if greatly insulted, like the stubbornness of captains who will not give up their ships even when mortal danger hovers over their ships. They believe after all in the ship and in the strength of their own belief more than in the power of the danger.

The Yiddish gathering of huddled together old Jews, from around the crushed streets, made an impression on me of a homeless multitude of souls who want to revive each other with their own little bit of loneliness.

I said to myself bluntly and harshly:

This, it seems, is the situation.

When I left, my heart quickly became filled more and more with deep respect and limitless reverence for the knight of Yiddish – for Sztencel, who was left behind in the little salon – although he strongly wanted to accompany me – to complete until the end the love-deprived, sweet-lonely oyneg Shabbos.

H. Levik


Yakov Szternberg
(Photo)

Son of Sholem and Ruchl. Born in Czenstochow. Came to America in 1922. He was a member of the Czenstochower Neighborhood Educational Society in Chicago and was active in the Czenstochower Relief Committee. Died at the age of 38 in Chicago in 1935. He was married to Mrs. Jonel.


Haim Szternberg

Son of Sholem and Ruchl. Born in Czenstochow in 1899. Came to America (Chicago) in 1920 and married his wife, Miriam, here. They have three children. He is a member of the Chicago Painter's Union local 275, member of the Chicago Czenstochower Independent Union and the International People's Order.


Natan (Nathan) Szternberg
Chicago

(Photo)

Son of Sholem and Ruchl. Born in Czenstochow on the 12th of May 1902. He

[Page CVI] (mistakenly printed as CXVI in book)

married Sylvia Lipman. Came to America from Eretz-Yisroel on the 15th August 1923. He is a member of the People's Order and of the Czenstochower Independent Union in Chicago.


Morris Stern

Son of Shimkha Binem and Reizl. Born in Tomaszow Mazowiecki (Poland) on the 17th of July 1893. Came to America on the 15th of August 1912. He is the financial secretary of the Czenstochower branch 261 Arbeter Ring in New York. His two sons – Sidney and Louis – served in the American army.

Kopel Szczekacz
(Photo)

Born in Czenstochow in 1848. When he was 20 years old he was taken into the Russian army in the times of Aleksander II. There he graduated from non-commissioned officer's school and became a sergeant-major. Took part in the Russian-Turkish War. When he was about 33 years old, he returned and became the shamos [sexton] in the old synagogue, where he remained for 45 years. He loved to speak about military things and was happy when people listened to his stories. He also took upon himself the duty of teaching children how to say kaddish [prayer for the dead]. In this way, he taught about 250 children. Under the Nazis he became the Juden-Eltster [Nazi term for the head of the area Judenrat]. Greetings still arrived from him in February 1941. Since then there has been no further news about him. He could have still lived for many years. He has a son, Mikhal Szczekacz, in Tel Aviv.


Grunem Szimkowicz

Born in Czenstochow in 1876. Came to America in 1886.

Harold Szimkowicz
(Photo)

Son of Grunem and Cilia. Born on the 4th of April 1915, died on the 30th of July 1940.

Was a member of the George Hamilton Lodge 456 of the Knights of Pythias.


Leibl (Lou) Szimkowicz

[Translator's note: The names Leibl and Lou are used interchangeably in this biography.]

(Photo)

Son of Aizik and Chana. Born in Czenstochow in 1866. His parents were middle class people. His father was a tailor. In 1883 his father left Czenstochow and went to America. Leibl Szimkowicz was born in Czentochow and received an elementary education in a Russian public school. His teachers were Sapocznik and Meyerson. After graduating from the school, he learned a trade – as a goldsmith – and worked until he was drafted into the Russian army. His uncle, Haim, sent ship tickets and Leibl and his mother, Chana, brother, Grunem and sisters, Ruchl and Bentshe left for America in the summer of 1886.

Leibl Szimkowicz belongs to the Czenstochower synagogue on Clinton Street, New York, to which his father also belonged.

His was forced to leave his father's house because he had to work on Shabbos. He worked with jewelry. At age 25, he married Chaya Gotayner, born in Czenstochow, who died on the 26th of February 1920, leaving four orphans (two sons and two daughters). [Translator's note: the Yiddish word for orphan is yosem and can refer to someone who has lost one parent.]

Later, Lou Szimkowicz joined the Yiddish theater business, managed the vaudeville theater and movie house on Sutter Avenue, Brownsville and in 1898 he managed the Yiddish theater on Delancey Street, New York. He attracted benefits to Brooklyn, Sigel Street, and the Lyric Theater in 1918-1919. The famous artists Jacob Adler, Kessler, Scheingold, [Helen] Bida of Czenstochow, Mr. and Mrs. Goldberg, Mr. and Mrs. Jacobs and others performed in his theaters. He is still involved in the Yiddish theater business.

Leibl Szimkowicz was one of the founders of the Czenstochower Young Men, member of the Czenstochower Synagogue, founder of the Czenstochower Relief Committee and of the Ladies Auxiliary. He was elected as delegate to Czenstochow after the First World War to plan the rebuilding the Y. L. Peretz House children's homes and the Jewish public school. He is a member of the Czentochower Yidn book committee and ex-chairman of the Relief Committee.

His two grandsons served in the American army.


George Szimkowicz
(Photo)

Son of Louis and Hela. Died at the age of 21 in New York on the 15th of September 1916.

[Page CVII]

Celia Szimkowicz
(née Gotayner)

Born in Czenstochow in 1877. Married Louis Szimkowicz in 1901


Khanina Szajer
(Photo)

Son of Yehuda Meir and Leah Szajer. Born in Czenstochow on the 15th of May 1882. Came to America 1906. Married Reizl Silver, the daughter of Yeshayahu Eleizer Silver, 1908. He is a member of the Zionist Organization in Passaic, New Jersey. His son, Julius, was a doctor in the American army.


Leah Szajer

Born in Krzepice, near Czenstochow in 1859. Died 1921. Mother of Khanina, Fradl, Mordekhai, Dovid, Rachel, Ester, Moshe and Josef.

Honor her memory.


Shlomoh Meir Szlingboim
Jackson Heights, N.J.*
(Photo)

[*Translator's note: Jackson Heights is located in New York City, in the borough of Queens, not in New Jersey]

Son of Yehoshya and Ester-Malka. Born on the 14th of December 1893 in Warsaw. He lived in Czenstochow for a long time and came to America on the 28th of August 1912.

Shlomoh Szlingboim is a member of the Czenstochower branch of the International Workers Order.


Shlomoh Szlezinger
Chicago

of Avraham Leib and Haya. Born in Czenstochow on the 7th of February 1885. He marred Hendl Przerowski. He came to America from Germany in 1921.

Shlomoh Szlezinger is a member of the Czenstochower Educational Union in Chicago. His wife, Hendl, is active in the Bendiner (Bedzin) Ladies Auxiliary and is the treasurer of the Czenstochower Aid Society in Chicago. She is among the most active workers. Their two sons – Kurt and Morris – served in the American army.


Golda Szmulewicz
Chicago

(Photo)

Daughter of Morton and Elise Szeradski. Born in Radomsk on the 18th of September 1889. Lived for many years in Czenstochow. Came to America July 1904. Member of the Ladies Support and Sisterhood Bnei Yisroel.


Feitl Szmulewicz
(Photo)

In 1904 – at age 16-17 (a worker in Wajnberg's factory), he was drawn into the movement for freedom and became

(Photo, caption: Mendl Szmulewicz)

(Photo, caption: F. Szmulewicz's mother)

(Photo, caption: Feitl Szmulewicz in the service of the Home Guard)

a member of the S.S [Social Zionist] Party. He excelled with his earnestness and dedication to the Jewish socialist ideals.

After the years 1905-6, when only a small group of the great S.S. masses remained, Feitl Szmulewicz was still devoted to idea [of Social Zionism] and was one of the most active in the group. He was a person of deeds. He was one of the founders and most active member of the Yiddish Literary Society and later – Lira [a singing organization]. Helped found the Jewish library and for many years was its

[Page CVIII]

librarian. He also eagerly helped with the creation of the Yiddish press in Czenstochow. One of his feature articles in the Czenstochower Vokhnblat [Czenstochow Weekly Newspaper] was: “In What Do Jews Rejoice.”

F. Sz. was one of the founders of and a committee member of the communal bakery at the time of the First World War and the secretary of the “educator's union” that was the cover of the Social Zionists under the German occupation.

In 1916 he was sent to work by the Germans and arrived in Breslau [Wroclaw]. He met many Jewish workers there, founded a cultural union with a reading room, arranged readings and so on.

In 1918 when Jewish mass emigration through Germany began, he contacted the Jewish delegation in Paris and founded an information bureau for emigrants.

When O.R.T. was moved to Berlin, he founded a division in Breslau, with the help of Ahron Singalowski.

In 1920 he founded a division of the Berlin Mizrekh Yidishn Farband [Eastern Jewish Union], became its longtime president, arranged one gathering, was elected a delegate to all of the meetings of the union, founded a Yiddish newspaper for eastern Jews – Undzer Lebn [Our Life] – took an active part in the kehile elections where a Czenstochower Jew was elected as the representative of the eastern Jews and F. Sh. became a member of the cultural commission of the Breslauer Jewish community.

In 1922, when the Polish government deprived a number of Jewish emigrants of their civil rights, he took part in the founding of an association of the homeless and with the help of Matskin, the representative of the People's Bund, of the Jewish National Council in Warsaw and personal intervention by the Polish Consul – succeeded in restoring the civil rights for many of the Polish Jews who were then living in Germany.

In 1933, when Hitler came to power and the expulsion of Polish Jews from Germany began, he traveled to Warsaw to intervene with the refugee committee concerning the matter. When he returned, he, too, was expelled and he decided to go to Eretz-Yisroel.

Employed in the glass trade – here he became the chairman of the section for many years and wrote a series of articles about the problems of the craftworkers for the only Yiddish newspaper – Ney Velt [New World]. He became a member of the Yiddish literary and journalist club; worked with the country's YIVO committee; took an active part in the activities of the Czenstochower landsmanschaftn [organization of people from the same town] as secretary of the national council under the chair of Dr. Josef Kruk.

One of the first in its service, he joined the “Home Guard” at its creation for national protection and remains there.

His two sons serve the community – one as a gapir [Turkish word meaning unofficial armed guard], the second, a member of an agricultural kibbutz.

He took an active part in the publication of the book, Czenstochower Yidn, as the secretary of the Czenstochower “Home Guard,” both with his own articles and by editing the articles of a whole series of landsleit in Eretz-Yisroel.


Louis (Leizer) Szklarczik
Chicago

Son of Hershl and Leah. Born in Radomsk in 1894. Came from Czenstochow to America in 1912. He is an executive member of the Educational Society in Chicago.


Yehieil Szpic

Son of Josef and Fradl. Born in Dzialoszyn. He died in Breslau (Germany).


Race Szpic

Daughter of Yitzhak and Reizl Khaskel. Died in Krzepice (Poland).


Wolf and Hana Szpigelman

(Photo, caption: Wolf Szpigelman)

(Photo, caption: Hana Szpigelman)

Both were born in Czenstochow. Their name was well known in Czenstochow because of their charitable work. Wolf died in 1912 and Hana in 1932.


Josef Szpigelman

Son of Wolf and Hana. Born in Czenstochow. He now lives in Detroit. Received a gymnazie education, also studied Yiddish and Hebrew with the famous pedagogue, Reb Eliezer Klinecki, of blessed memory, author of the books Songs of Praise and HaHaim haKhodeshim.

He left Czenstochow in 1910, because he did not want to serve in the Russian army. He visited Czenstochow in 1931.


Max Szpigelman
Detroit

Son of Wolf and Hana. Born on the 5th of May 1905 in Czenstochow. Came to America June 1921. In Czenstochow, he was a managing committee member of the Jewish Tour and Sports Union.


[Page CIX]

Supplementary [Biographies]

Shlomoh Zalman Goldberg
(Photo)

Born in Czenstochow in 1862; died there in 1916.


Bluma Goldberg
(Photo)

Born in 1866; died in America in 1940.

Parent of Louis Goldberg.


Barnet Gross
(Photo)

Son of Wolf and Gitl Gric. Born in Czenstochow on the 4th of May 1883. Came to America in 1906. Died in Los Angeles on the 9th of July 1937. Husband of Szprinca and father of Gladys, Fritzy, Lila and Willy.


Wolf Grosman
(Photo)

Born in Lelew (Poland). He died in 1925 at the age of 60 in Czenstochow.


Shlomoh (Sol) Grynberg
(Photo)

His closeness to Czenstochow comes not only because his wife, Nekha Szpic, may she rest in peace, was a Czenstochower, but also because Sol Grynberg, the communal worker, the philanthropist, the Jew, the man – is always here, when there is aid activity for Jews, all the more when it is for Czenstochow.

Born in Noworadomsk [Radomsko] in 1873, the fourth son of Shmuel and Sheindl, he experienced want, need and poverty. The poverty of his parents in his home was so great that Shlomoh'le had to stop studying at the kheder [religious elementary school] at age 12 because the tuition could not be paid for him. He was forced to leave his home and go into the world to seek a purpose.

Shlomoh'le came to Lodz, studied the goldsmith trade for three years, and being by nature very capable, he later found work in Bendin [Bedzin] where he spent a long time. He took his first step in communal and cultural work in Bendin, organizing a theater troupe and, after a time, returned to Noworadomsk.

In 1899 he married Nekha Szpic of Czenstochow, settled in Radomsk, took an active part in the communal life of the city and won many friends.

An incident that took place in Noworadomsk during the Russo-Japanese War in the years 1904-05 made a strong impression on Shlomoh Grynberg and as a result of this, he decided to leave his birthplace and go to America. He came here in 1905 with his wife, Nekha. Like every immigrant at that time, he went through the thorny road of the “shop.” His persistence, his energy did not let him remain at the “shop” for long and after a short time, he became independent – he became the pioneer and founder of the Diamond Center on the Bowery in New York.

In time Sol Grynberg attained his financial position and this gave him the ability to develop widespread philanthropic and communal activities.

It is impossible to enumerate in a short biography the support and help that Sol Grynberg gave. A part of his work:

Beginning with individual support for friends, acquaintances and family in general and individual members in particular, there is almost no philanthropic institution in New York that did not share in his support for Jews in general and for his landsleit in particular throughout the years. We will state by virtue of the Noworadomsker Relief documents and bulletins that even non-Jews from his birthplace found in Sol Grynberg a person with a heart and through his generosity he won the friendship of the Christian population in Radomsk. Sol Grynberg's high ethical position can be shown by the fact that he even forgave the people with whom

[Page CX]

(Photos, caption: Signs of appreciation for S. Grynberg)

he had grievances because they were purely business matters.

The Noworadomsker Relief has not yet reported fully in its publications on the activities of Sol Grynberg as a relief worker. It is first being written and will shortly be published.

We will provide here several extracts from the Golden [Anniversary] Book of the Noworadomsker Society, in which Sol Grynberg was celebrated:

38 landsleit and friends wrote about just a small part of his activities as a relief worker.

Hundreds of greetings from Jewry and from organizations; also a personal greeting from the late President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, to Grynberg, for his help in selling War Bonds.

35 Jewish soldiers with a connection to Noworadomsk thanked Grynberg for his activity on their behalf during the time of war and after their return from the army.

The Federation of Polish Jews in America sent him a thank you letter (signed by Binyamin Winter) for his activity on behalf of Polish Jews.

Various pictures by artists as acknowledgement of his work decorate his house.

Talmud Torahs [schools for the poor], poor and bare footed children, gmiles khesed [interest-free loan] funds and other institutions were and today are still supported by him.

Here in America he belongs to the following organizations:

Founder and father of Beis Lekhem Eni'im [organization to provide food for the poor] in Manhattan and the Bronx; American Jewish Congress; Madiner Bal Tzedakah; Hebrew House for Invalids; Ladies Old Age Home; Bronx Society; Va'ad Hatzalah [Rescue Committee]; Hebrew Children's House; Congregation Beis Yosef; Congregation Sher Tefilah and a series of other, approximately 41, institutions.
Shortly after the liberation of Radomsk, he contributed $5,000 to a fund drive to rebuild his birthplace, Noworadomsk.

Today he lives in New York.

[Page CXI]

Nekha Grynberg

Daughter of Mordekhai and Ita Szpic. Born in 1871 in Czenstochow. Came to America in 1905. She belonged to Radomsker Relief, to the Radomsker Society and to various philanthropic societies. Died in 1836 in New York.


Samuel Gryn

Son of Josef and Cyrl. Born in Klobuck on the 28th of November 1881. He marred Frances Kawa. Came to America from Warsaw in 1907. He is a member of the Proszker Society and of United Czenstochower Relief in New York. His son, Jacob was a lieutenant and his second son, Arthur, a private in the American army.


Gershon Gryn
(Photo)

Son of Leib and Chana. Born in Czenstochow on the 29th of February 1896. Came to America in 1912. He married Sara Mularcz. Was a member of the Czentochower Young Men and of United Czenstochower Relief in New York. He died on the 29th of April 1939 in New York.


Sara Gryn

Daughter of Henekh and Beila Mularcz. Born in Koniecpol on the 30th of November 1896. Came to America on the 17th of February 1914. Married Joe Gryn [Translator's note: Joe is probably the name Gershon assumed in America]. She is a member of the Czenstochow Young Men's Society and one of the active co-workers of United Czenstochower Relief in New York and the Ladies Auxiliary. Her sons, Jesse, a sergeant, and Bernard, private, served in the American army.


Bernard (Bronek) Horowicz

Son of Yitzhak and Sheva Gliksman-Horowicz. Born on the 14th of February 1935. Suffered the fate of the martyrs during the years 1939-1945.


Aleksander Z. Haptka
(Photo)

Son of Tuvya and Salomea. Born in Czenstochow in 1893. Came to America in 1941. Belongs to the National Organization of Polish Jews. In Poland, he was a speaker about Jewish matters at the Interior Ministry until the war.

(Photo, caption: Ala Haptka)

Born in Zarki (Poland) in 1907.


Israel Warszawski
Chicago

Son of Dovid Shmuel and Bluma. Born in Czenstochow on the 13th of August 1891. Came to America in 1913.


Mendl Warszawski

Son of Avraham and Malka. Born in Koniecpol (Poland) in 1865. Came to America in 1922. He died on the 7th of May 1932 in Chicago.


Shimkhah Wiewiora (Yura)

Born in Klomnice. Came to America in 1914. He was a member of the Czenstochower Regional Union in Detroit. Died at age 64 in Flint, Mich.


Haim Hirsz Tanski
(Photo)

Son of Berish and Ester Toba. Born in Radomsk in 1871. Was a teacher in Czenstochow. Came to America in 1923.

Father of Avraham, Yitzhak, Dovid, Moshe, Harry and Tilly Kepp.


Chava Tanski
(Proto)

(Née Dukart) From Czenstochow. Came to America in 1923. Died in 1942 in New York.

Honor her memory!


Dovid Tanski

Son of Haim Hirsh Tanski

(Photo)


Ellen Tanski

Daughter of Dovid and Sara Czarni.

[Page CXII]

Jakob Zajdman
(Proto)

Born in Czenstochow on the 12th of February 1874. Came to America in 1886. Married Betty Cohen in 1900.

A member since 1893 of Czenstochower Young Men. Held several offices in the organization and is now an honorary member. He is also a member of several other organizations.


Henekh (Haimy) Yoskowicz

Son of Josef and Feigl. Born in Piotrkow. Came to America in 1914. He was a member of the Arbeter Ring and of the Jewish People's Union in Detroit. Was one of the founders of the Czenstochower Regional Union in Detroit. Died on the 20th of August 1939 in Detroit.


Mendl Pakula

Son of Leibish and Nakha. Died in 1911 at age 54 in Warsaw. The father of Iser, Welwl and Ita.


Fishl Koziwoda
(Photo)


Koniecpolski
(Proto)

An active worker with Poale-Zion in Czenstochow.


Dovid Fajnrajkh
(Proto)

Former member of the S.S. [Zionist Socialists]. Spent several years in jail. The brother of Meir Fajnrajkh and Fela Biro.


Makhl Storozum and his wife
(Proto)

Now in America.


Sam Goldberg
(Photo)


Wajsberg
Lynn, Mass.

(Photo)


Shmuel Leser
London

(Photo)


Zelda Leser
(Photo)


Josef Hirsh Grajcer
(Proto)

[Page CXIII]

Abraham Gotlib
(Photo)

Worker for Poale-Zion in Czenstochow. Today he is in Eretz-Yisroel.


L. Szpicer
(Photo)


Adolf Furman
(Photo)


Dovid Wajnholc
Argentina

Worker with the Aid Union

(Photo)


Wajsman
Argentina

Worker with the Aid Union

(Photo)


Yosokhar Gricer
(Photo)


Adolf Epsztajn
(Proto)

The brother of Hershl Epsztajn (Los Angeles). Chairman of the Retailers Union in Czenstochow. Belonged to the P.P.S. [Polska Partia Socjalistynczna – Polish Socialist Party] in his youth.


Blanche Willinger
(Photo)


Moshe Szwarc and his wife
(Photos)

Devoted active worker for Noworadomsker Relief in New York. Editor of the Noworadomsker Almanac.


Mrs. Nowid
(Photo)


Rywka Frajmowicz and her daughter
(Proto)

The sister of Max Peper, Los Angeles.

[Page CXIV]

Lili Brener
(Proto)

The child of the chairman of the Jewish Committee in Czenstochow, Liber Brener.

To the article: Rozenblat-Dykerman Circle.

(Photo, caption: Dykerman)

(Photo, caption: Chava Rozenblat)

(Photo with no identification)

(Photo, caption: Fajersztajn's daughter with her husband)

(Photo, caption: Finkl's parents)


Efriom Kremsdorf
(Proto)

Born in Czenstochow in 1893. Died in 1936 in Eretz-Yisroel. Founder of the public school in the Nachlat Ganim area of Tel Aviv.


Jack Rozen
(Photo, caption: son of Isidor Rozen)


Chena Kolin
(Photo

(Photo with no identification)

(Photo with no identification)

(Photo, right, caption: Helen Tempelhof Khrobaloski, wife of Alkanan Khrobaloski)

(Photo, left, caption: Chava Khrobaloski, daughter of Alkanan Khrobaloski)

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