JCR-UK

1851 Anglo Jewry Database

 

              

         
 

 

     





Notes on Definitions

MAIN TABLE

Subject ID This is the unique identifying number for each individual in the database. It should be used in any queries to the editor.

Surname/given names Where different names are used in different official documents, these are shown in brackets. Round brackets are used for different spellings or renditions of essentially the same name, for example Mark (Mordecai) Jacob (Jacobs). Square brackets are used for a complete name change, for example Julia Moses [Beddington].

Women using a married surname in 1851 are listed by that surname, not their maiden surname. Wherever available the maiden surname can be deduced from the father’s surname (shown further down in the table).

Composite Sephardi names (like Gomes Da Costa or Nunes Martines) have been standardised in line with the most common renditions in 19th century censuses etc. For example Gomes da Costa, will be listed by surname as Da Costa (with the Gomes element tacked on at the end of the given name) and Nunes Martines as surname Martin - or Martin (Martines) - with the Nunes element tacked on the end of the given name. An exhaustive listing of how different names are treated cannot be offered here: if searching by one name (for example Silva) does not produce a result, try adding another element of the name (for example Mendes Da Silva).

Year of birth comes wherever possible from birth registration documents, but very often the best available source is censuses. In these cases, it represents a best judgment on the available data. When drawn from censuses, the year of birth is simply the census date minus the listed age – so someone listed as age 7 in 1851 will be shown with the birth year 1844.

Place of birth normally comes from censuses, naturalization papers &c. Where there are conflicting accounts (e.g. one source says Amsterdam and another London), it shows the contributor’s best judgment on the available data

Many place-names have changed. Where this applies, the database gives both the expression normally used today and then, in square brackets after it, the expression as it appears in the source document. Examples are ‘Poznan, Poland [Posen, Prussia]’ or ‘Middlesex Street [Petticoat Lane]’.

Sources Commonly used abbreviations include ‘GB BC’/‘GB DC’ for a birth/death certificate from the relevant country in Great Britain; ‘GRO index’ for the Government’s bound volumes of birth/death indexes; and FreeBMD for the digital transcript of those indexes. See Published Sources for the main other sources quoted.

Father The father is normally listed by his names as used in the 1851 census. (Exceptions are made where a different name is used consistently in most other sources.) Where different names are used in different official documents, these are shown in brackets. Round brackets are used for different spellings or renditions of essentially the same name, for example Mark (Mordecai) Jacob (Jacobs). Square brackets are used for a complete name change, for example Edward Moses [Beddington].

Mother The mother’s given names are normally as used in the 1851 census. (Exceptions are made where a different name is used consistently in most other sources.) The surname shown here is always the maiden surname. Where different names are used in different official documents, these are shown in brackets. Round brackets are used for different spellings or renditions of essentially the same name, for example Mary Ann (Miriam) Jacob (Jacobs). Square brackets are used for a complete name change, for example Adeline (Adelina) Moses [Merton].

Faith affiliations This is intended to give some idea of the person’s faith (if any) across his or her lifetime. It shows, wherever known, the particular synagogue or other establishment at which they worshipped. Where that is not known, but the establishment where their birth, marriage or death was registered can be named, this is shown instead.

In cases where people, though not congregants of the Great Synagogue, were married under the Great Synagogue’s authorisation, the form ‘Jewish rites’ is used. Similarly, the form ‘Jewish rites’ is used for later-life affiliation where no specific synagogue can be named but burial was in a Jewish cemetery.


SPOUSE INFORMATION

Details are listed by date-order of marriage (where there was more than one).

Husbands are normally listed by their names as used in the 1851 census. (Exceptions are made where a different name is used consistently in most other sources.) Where different names are used in different official documents, these are shown in brackets. Round brackets are used for different spellings or renditions of essentially the same name, for example Mark (Mordecai) Jacob (Jacobs). Square brackets are used for a complete name change, for example Edward Moses [Beddington].

Wife Given names are normally as used in the 1851 census. (Exceptions are made where a different name is used consistently in most other sources.) Where different names are used in different official documents, these are shown in brackets. Round brackets are used for different spellings or renditions of essentially the same name, for example Mary Ann (Miriam) Jacob (Jacobs). Square brackets are used for a complete name change, for example Adeline (Adelina) Moses [Merton]. The surname shown here is always the maiden name.

Where the person concerned is known to have had children outside marriage, the partner concerned (where known) is listed as a spouse, and a reference made in the Notes.

Sources Commonly used abbreviations include ‘GB MC’ for a marriage certificate from the relevant country in Great Britain; ‘GRO index’ for the Government’s bound volumes of birth/death indexes; and FreeBMD for the digital transcript of those indexes. See Published Sources for the main other sources quoted.


CHILDREN TABLE

Children are, as far as possible, listed in birth order. They include:

• stillbirths and infant deaths
• children born after 1851 as well as those born before
• children born abroad as well as those born in Britain
• non-Jewish children of someone who married out as well as Jewish children

Any child born into a Jewish household and known to have been living in Great Britain in 1851 should have a separate entry in the database in their own right.

Name Children are listed by given names only. Where applicable, the entry will normally start with the names or names as used in the 1851 census. (Exceptions are made where a different name is used consistently in most other sources.) Where different names are used in different official documents, these are shown in brackets. Round brackets are used for different spellings or renditions of essentially the same name, for example, Mark (Mordecai). Square brackets are used for a complete name change, for example Moses [Richard].

Year of birth comes wherever possible from birth registration documents, but very often the best available source is censuses. In these cases, it represents a best judgment on the available data. When drawn from censuses, the year of birth is simply the census date minus the listed age – so someone listed as age 7 in 1851 will be shown with the birth year 1844.

In this table only the year of birth, not the full date, is listed. Any child who has a separate listing in the database will have their full date of birth, if known, listed there.


ADDRESSES AND OCCUPATIONS TABLE

Address/City For decades in the 18th century, only cities are listed, not full addresses, but in the few cases where a street address is known, reference is made to it in the Notes on the Main Table.

Just one address is shown for any given decade, and wherever possible it is the place where the person was living at the time of the relevant census. If they were away from home on census night (eg travelling on business, or at boarding school), wherever possible the address shown is their settled home address; the Notes in the Main Table should include their temporary address in the census.

Where place names have changed over time, the database gives both the expression normally used today and then, in square brackets after it, the expression as it appears in the source document. Examples are ‘Poznan, Poland [Posen, Prussia]’ or ‘Middlesex Street [Petticoat Lane]’. (An exception arises where no street address is known, but a parish has been listed in the source document. The parish name will be listed as it stands, with no attempt to track changes in parish names or boundaries.)

In the interests of comparability, the Editor has developed a standardised gazetteer of London districts and the streets within them where Jews were living. Even though a source document might list a given street as being in, say, ‘Whitechapel’, if the database gazetteer attributes that street to ‘Spitalfields’ it will be so listed throughout the database.

Source Wherever possible, this shows full census references.

Failing that, where possible the address is taken from another official document, like a birth certificate, using the standard abbreviations used elsewhere in the database, e.g. ‘GB BC’/‘GB MC’/‘GB DC’ for a birth/marriage/death certificate from the relevant country in Great Britain; ‘GRO index’ for the Government’s bound volumes of birth/death indexes; and ‘FreeBMD’ for the digital transcript of those indexes on FreeBMD. See Published Sources for the main other sources quoted.

In other cases still, the address has only been inferred. Sometimes it is inferred from the birthplace of a child, or of a brother or sister reasonably close in age to the person in question. In such cases the formulation ‘child’s birthplace’ or ‘sib’s birthplace’ is used. In other cases, the address for one decade has been inferred from the fact that it is the same in the two surrounding decades, and the source line will indicate this.

Occupations This follows the same conventions as addresses: it gives the occupation(s) at one point in the decade only, preferably at the time of the census, and otherwise at the date closest to the census. The actual census formulation will have been preferred unless another source (e.g. a trade directory) is more informative.
 

This database is registered with the Genealogy Quality Code. This means that its editor places considerations of quality above quantity and commercial or other agendas

 

 

 
 


 

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