It's first and most urgent goal was to provide aid and welfare services to the survivors. It began by sending three large crates of clothing, shoes and other provisions, to the remaining members of the community.
Over the course of time, when the number of Przemysl immigrants to Israel increased, the organization provided help to the new immigrants during their acclimation, by giving them interest-free loans. For this purpose, a charity fund was established, which still operates today 3 , even though the wave of immigration has stopped. The organization continues the tradition of giving charity to the needy, and is assisted in this mission by Irgun Yotzei Przemysl 4 in the United States.
Each year, on the anniversary of the destruction of the Przemysl ghetto, a memorial service is held to commemorate the town's martyrs. This book is published by the organization to commemorate the community.
[photo of Olei Przemysl 5 in Tel Aviv at a commemoration of fellow-citizens]
The organization's center is in Tel Aviv, and there is also a branch in Haifa. The organization is headed by a committee of 20 members.
There are more than 2,000 Przemysl olim in Israel, among them both old pioneers and new immigrants. They are dispersed throughout the entire country, from Dan to Eilat, in cities, villages, moshavim 6 and kibbutzim.
The Przemysl olim occupy positions in all branches of the Israeli economy: the industry and its main institutions, crafts, trade, and banking. Many of them are professionals: physicians, lawyers, engineers,
pharmacists, school teachers. In the army officers and sergeants, many of whom have been awarded medals in the Independence War, the Haganah 7 , and the Sinai Campaign. There are also many who are senior officers in the Israeli Police, senior officials in distinguished positions in the government and in municipal institutions, agriculturalists in kibbutzim and moshavim, members of the executive board of the Histadrut 8 , and party activists. In the arts renowned painters and sculptures.
The organization is in contact with the Przemysl landsmanschaft organizations in the United States, Argentine, Belgium and France. Many of the former Przemysl residents live in these countries, and have strong ties with Israel and with their fellow Przemysl residents who now live in Israel.
The members who were active in the founding of the organization were: Mrs. Dr. Miriam Mieses-Reif, Mrs. Bella Bauman, Mrs. Regina Schop, Mr. Hertz Antman, Mr. Yehezkel Feuer 9 , and Mr. Shlomo Schop.
The members of the most recent council are: Dr. Zvi Rubinfeld, Mina Baba 10 , Sarah Burstein 11 , Tzilla Brodner, Ida Goldstein 12 , Elimelech Metzger, Benjamin Salz 13 , Dziunia Pepperbaum, Clara Pekelman, Arieh Kawe, Moshe Kupferberg, Emil Kestner, Yisrael Schmidt. The representatives of Haifa: Hanoch Hand, eng. Moshe Wirth 14 , Dr. Benjamin Weintraub.
The directors of the charity fund are: Nachum Poller, Asher Rosenfeld, Sima Pe'er. The editorial board of Sefer Przemysl [the Przemysl Book] is comprised of: Dr. Dov Nitzani, eng. Joseph Altbauer, Dr. Mordechai Schattner, Dr. Eliyahu Bloch, Hanan Trau, eng. Leopold Goetz, Dr. Matityahu Gans, Hanoch Hand and Shlomo Goldstein, of blessed memory.
The members of the board who have passed away are: Dr. Yosef Axer, Shlomo Goldstein, Dr. Yosef Grossman, Shmuel Rebhan, Jacob Krener, Stella Speiser 15 -Lendrer.
[photo of the presidium at an assembly of Irgun Olei Przemysl. From left: Dr. D. Nitzani, H. Hand, J. Altbauer, Dr. B. Weintraub, A. Kawe, H. Trau, Dr. M. Schattner, Dr. Z. Rubenfeld.]
The first organizations established by the Przemysl people during that period and afterwards, were:
A member who became ill would receive $10 a week during the first three weeks, and $7 a week for the next seven weeks. In cases of chronic illness or unemployment, larger sums were given.
There was a special fund for regular loans, the Free Loan Fund, which was founded and managed by Nathan Kurtz, and known as The Kurtz Fund. Members could borrow money from this fund when necessary.
Within the society, there was also a chapter responsible for taking care of elderly members, which was founded and managed by Dennenhirsh, a member originally from Romania. This fund made payments on behalf of members over the age of 65, who were unable to make their own payments.
The emblem of the town of Przemysla bear with a star on its back 18 served as the symbol of the society.
In order to assure burial plots for the members, the society purchased three cemeteries. The first is the Washington Cemetery in Brooklyn, in which some 400 people have been buried thus far, and some 15 burial spots remain, which are being retained for members with special privileges.
In 1902 an additional cemetery was purchased in Long Island, Mount Zion Cemetery, which serves as the resting place for some 500 people.
This cemetery also became full, and the society therefore purchased a third, larger cemetery in 1924, Beth David Cemetery in Long Island, where some 100 people have been buried so far.
The society also participates in the expenses of the funerals and the tombstones.
Burial spaces are reserved primarily for Przemysl people, however some spaces are also reserved for people from other places.
Firstly, for those who married society members or their children, as long as they join the society. It should be emphasized that the society members are mostly from Galicia.
In 1959 the society celebrated its seventieth anniversary and held a festive banquet, in which many members participated. The society intends to celebrate its diamond anniversary in May of 1964, commemorating its existence for 75 years 75 years of helping the needy, aiding the sick, consoling grieving families and supporting various charity organizations in the fulfillment of their aims.
In 1961, the organization was headed by:
President: Ben Biber
Chairman: Herbert K. Pillersdorf
Assistant Chairman: Sam Gottleib
Secretary of Finance: Benjamin Buksbaum
Registrar: William Knoller
Treasurer: William Schneider
Board Members: Benjamin Raps 19 , Benjamin Greenberg.
Among the founding members was Attorney Samuel Goldstein, who was elected chairman of the Galician organization, Har ha'Moriah.
In 1959, the congregation was lead by:
Former President: Jack Burstock
President: Benjamin Kern
Vice President: Shimon Schwartz
Secretary of Finance: Herman Schalotzky
Registrar: Emil Neubort
Treasurer: Zigmund Goldsmith
In 1962 the congregation organized an assembly in memory of the Przemysl Shoah victims, lead by Mr. Jack Burstock, the former president of the congregation. The congregation chairman, Mr. Benjamin Kern, spoke at the assembly, and the hazkarat neshamot 20 was conducted by Rabbi Zvi Witzner 21 and Cantor Abraham Roth.
The Chamber dealt primarily with mutual life insurance for its members, and issued policies worth $600. The Depression which befell the United States in 1922 22 caused the collapse and dismantling of the Chamber, along with most organizations of its kind.
The organization expanded rapidly and it membership reached 600. Among the activists were L. Lichtenfeld, a fine orator and organizer, the grandson of the melamed 23 Rabbi Sinai of Przemysl, as well as Furth 24 and Kraut (the son of Rabbi Bunim Kraut).
Over the course of time, the organization developed internal conflicts and differences of opinion, which had both personal and political backgrounds, and they eventually lead to its dismantling. Most of its members remained loyal to the affairs of Przemysl, and joined the established organization, First Przemysl Sick Benefit Society.
Some aid was given directly, and some was administered through general aid organizations such as the Joint 25 . The board also managed to locate relatives of Przemysl people in various countries, including Austria, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Italy, France and even China. The committee sought help from Przemysl people in New York and other cities, and its calls were answered.
[photo of Nathan Kupfer]
In January, 1946, a mass assembly was held in New York, headed by Herman Jungleib, at which speeches were given by Shmuel Goldstein, Nathan Kupfer, and Herbert Sussman 26 . As a result, $7,168 were raised at the assembly. The first president of the committee was Mrs. Zini Salzberg 27 , and the next president was Nathan Kupfer. For more than seven years, he functioned as the heart and soul of the organizations of Przemysl Jews, especially the First Przemysl Sick Benefit Society. He devoted much of his time and energy to public affairs during those years.
The committee directorship was comprised, in 1946, of the following members: Vice Presidents Anna Goldberg, Joe Dank, Regina Spinrad, Nathan Kurtz, Martha Burstock, Harry Goldberg, and Bernard Krieger; Treasurer Jack Weiss; Secretary Helen Kaufman. In 1962, Jack Burstock was elected Chairman, and Nathan Kupfer, Treasurer.
The fact that despite all the difficulties of the time and the place, the Przemysl people managed for seventy-five years to stay loyal to their townspeople wherever they were, and to maintain organizations devoted to the Jewish affairs, is proof of their faithfulness to their birthplace. The ties between the two centers, in New York and in Israel, ensure the commemoration of the age-old Przemysl community, which no longer exists.
Eliyahu Unger [photo]
Born in Tel Aviv on August 13, 1936, to Yehuda and Tzila, nee Fink, a Zionist family from Przemysl. A student at Ben-Shemen, who then studied at the agricultural school Mikveh Yisrael, from where he graduated. Was a member of the Shomria gar'in at Kibbutz Zikkim, and served as a coordinator and agricultural counselor in the gar'in 28 and in the Kibbutz. Joined the IDF in January, 1955. Participated in various battles, and was wounded during the Battle of Hussan, on September 26, 1956. Despite his fatal wounds, he continued to fight courageously, until the very end. He was buried in the military cemetery at Kiriyat Shaul.
Jacob Intrator [photo]
Son of Nechemiah and Rachel, born on December 26, 1904 in Przemysl. One of the anonymous soldiers 29 who served their people and homeland, both in their lives and with their deaths. Went to high-school and made aliyah 30 in 1933. A founding member of the Haganah, served as a watchman for several years, and took part in defending the farms of the women workers at Einot and Ben-Shemen. Most recently worked in the diamond industry. During the War of Independence served in the Home Guard, among the elderly members. During his service he was injured and died near a roadblock in Jaffa, on August 7, 1948. He is buried in Nachalat Yitzhak.
Joseph Engel [photo]
Son of Yehoshua and Rachel. Born on August 20, 1908 in Przemysl. Son of a Zionist family, a member of the Dror 31 movement since his youth. Drafted to the Polish army. After the war joined a kibbutz hachshara in Budapest, reached Italy with a group of border smugglers, and there became one of the founders of a kibbutz hachshara 32 in Florence. On January 18, 1946, he managed to immigrate to Israel on board the Enzo Sereni and joined the Gesher farm.
When the War of Independence broke out, he was displeased with having been posted at a searchlight post, and demanded to be allowed to guard the fields. He showed great dedication and good judgment in this duty. On one occasion when he set out with a friend to guard the fields, they were ambushed by a gang who killed them both. He died on April 4, 1948. He is buried at Gesher.
Joseph Bauminger (Krzyk) 33 [photo]
Born on May 17, 1928 in Przemysl. Spent time in a concentration camp, and after many tribulations managed to reach the homeland in 1945, by means of illegal immigration [Bederech Ha'apalah]. He was among the detainees at Atlit 34 , and was released by the Haganah in the famous Atlit Operation. 35 He spent some time on Kibbutz Dafna, and then moved to Mikveh Yisrael, where he studied. The young man dedicated all his energy and might to the Torah, and was an extremely diligent student [and a scholar].
When the War of Independence broke out, he enlisted in the army and moved to Gush Etzion, where he took part in the battles over the Gush 36 . When it fell, he fell too, at Kfar Etzion, on May 13, 1948. He is buried on Mount Herzl in Jerusalem.
Gideon (Paul) Bachrach [photo]
Son of Dr. Arthur and Dr. Albina, nee Lauterbach, a well-known Zionist family in Przemysl. Born on August 23, 1928, in Morawska Ostrawa 37 and went to a Jewish school there. At the beginning of 1940 he made aliyah with his parents. He studied at the Oleh youth institute in Maged, near Pardes Chana. After finishing primary school at Maged, he went to the school for commerce, Safra, in Tel Aviv, and graduated with honors. In 1947 he successfully passed the London matriculation exam. He served in the Haganah from the age of 14, and took part in the Nights of Wingate 38 operations. After the bagrut 39 examination, he joined the National Service as a horseback guard in Eben Yehudah and after four months, with the increase in hostile activities in Israel, he joined the army. Despite being an only child, he refused to be exempted from combat service. In April, 1948, he joined a regiment of the IDF.
He took part in the battles of the Arab Kfar Saba and in Wadi Ara. In the Tantura battle he volunteered, along with a friend, to evacuate the wounded from the two fronts. He was severely injured and died in the hospital of stomach wounds, on May 25, 1948. He is buried in Nachalat Yitzhak.
Aharon (Artur) Hirschberg [photo]
Son of Leo and Zosha. Born on May 27, 1926 in Przemysl. He completed elementary school and high-school, and was a member of the Komsomol 40 . In 1942 he attempted to escape the Przemysl ghetto and join the partisans. He was sentenced to death, but was saved. He was transferred to the labor camp at Auschwitz 41 and worked together with Anglo-Saxon POW's. When he defended the honor of a young Jewish man who was beaten by one of the Hitlerjugend 42 , he was again sentenced to death. But due to his being one of the best workers, he was pardoned after the labor supervisors interfered. He left on the escape route to Italy and joined Kibbutz Dror, in Ostia near Rome. He joined the Etzel 43 and was taken off the list of the people intended for ha'apalah 44 , wandered through Germany to France and from there immigrated on board the LaNegev, and was sent to Cyprus after a struggle with the British authorities at the port of Haifa.
When he was finally permitted to make aliyah, and arrived in Israel on February 19, 1948, he immediately volunteered for combat duty and went to Be'er Ya'akov for training. During the training, the Arabs from Ramleh attacked. He was injured there and continued to carry his weapon some 200 meters until he fell, unconscious. He died from his injuries on March 23, 1948. He is buried in Nachalat Yitzhak.
Yeshayahu Baruch (Brosh) Salz [photo]
Son of Benjamin and Batya (Bertha), born in 1929 in Przemysl. Made aliyah with his parents in 1933. Completed elementary school, went on to study at the high-school for commerce. Was a member of the Tsofim 45 organization, and later in the tribes of Habonim. At the age of 16, he joined the Haganah. In the Tel Aviv Armored Corps, he completed a section commander course at Ben-Shemen, and during the Haganah underground period, he devoted himself to commanding the section he had been charged with. He took the section to accompany a convoy from Petah Tikva to Ben-Shemen, which had been cut off since the beginning of the War of Independence. He was severely injured and maintained his command until he lost consciousness. He was brought to a British military hospital in Be'er Ya'akov, where he died on December 14, 1947. He is buried in Nachalat Yitzhak.
Micha (Mishu) Tugendhaft [photo]
Son of Zvi and Leah, born in December, 1910 in Przemysl. Finished the Polish high-school and continued his studies at the
University in Lvov, in the Law Department. Made aliyah as a pioneer in 1935. Worked at Kibbutz Na'an, in agriculture. For health reasons, he left there in 1940, and after completing his service in the guard watch patrol, he worked for a while as a diamond polisher. Most recently he was a laboratory worker in the Ziv Institute in Rechovot. A member of the Haganah since his first day in Israel. During WWII he graduated with honors from a course for the guard patrol (ranked as Corporal) and served in it for two years. When his age-group was conscripted to the IDF, he joined the Scientific Corps and was killed in the line of duty on September 22, 1948. He is buried in Rechovot.
Emanuel-Menachem Medav [photo]
Son of Yehoshua and Zippora, born on the 6th day of the month of Sivan, 5685 (May 29, 1925) in Przemysl. Made aliyah with his parents in 1934, spent his childhood and studies in Haifa. Began his studies at the Netzach Yisrael school, which belonged to the Hamizrachi 46 movement, and continued at the Rei'ali school in Haifa, where he graduated with honors. He was a member of the Tsofim movement and a counselor in its Haifa branch. After finishing his schooling, he went for training in the Yavneh Kevutzah 47 . After a while he was ordered to move to Jerusalem and organize the local branch of the Religious Tsofim Congregation. During that time, he was studying at the university. He volunteered to serve as a teacher and guide in Cyprus. When he returned from that post, he continued his studies in Jerusalem.
When the riots broke out and the Old City was placed under siege, he volunteered to go to the Old City as a teacher and guide, and actively participated in the defense of the Old City. He organized his young charges and trained them for defense actions. On March 31, 1948, when he learned of a tragedy that had befallen his family in Haifa, he was given permission to leave the Old City for the first time, but when he was already in the exiting convoy, he realized that the British had imprisoned the Old City commander, and he decided to return. Upon the deterioration of the situation in the Old City, he became one of the corner stones of its persistent defense. He was severely wounded while laying down mines in the area which the Arabs had seized, and he died on May 14, 1948 in the Old City of Jerusalem.
Michael (Mark) Segal [photo]
Son of Shlomo and Malkah, born on February 25, 1912 in Przemysl, to a poor Chassidic family. Studied at cheders and at a Polish elementary school. Found his way to the Shomer Ha'tsair branch, and answered the call of the movement to become involved in
realization [of the Zionist ideals] and training. When he made aliyah in 1936, he was given the job of baker at the camp in Gan Shmuel. When his
group went to settle in Yad Mordechai, he was forced to remain for a long while
with the bakery workers in Netanya. When he finally moved to the kibbutz, he
fulfilled the many duties given to him, with dedication and talent. When the
newspaper was established, Segal was asked to be one of its first
He took part in the defense of Yad Mordechai, first from the gangs and later from the Egyptian Army. He was killed by a shell dropped on his post on May 19, 1948. He is buried at Yad Mordechai.
Aharon Stolzberg [photo]
Son of Mordechai and Gittel, born on May 16, 1922 in Przemysl, to a Chassidic-Zionist family. Studied at a cheder and at the Hebrew Gymnasium
. Made aliyah with his parents in 1935, and continued his studies at the Rei'ali school in Haifa. When he finished the sixth grade, he went to work for
a year in the Ma'ayan kevutzah and in Kiriyat Anavim. He later returned to the Rei'ali school and graduated with honors. He was a member of the Tsofim movement. After finishing school he was one of the founders of the Tsofim kevutzah and a charter of its path. As a member of this group, he joined the Palmach
when it was established, rose to the rank of Company Commander, Platoon
Commander, and even served as the Press Officer for the brigade. He
participated in bringing ma'apilim
to the shores of Israel, taking olim through the northern border, blowing up train tracks, the Nights of
Wingate, the Atlit Camp operation, the explosion of Har Adar
, and more. In 1947 he was a member of the Kibbutz Me'uchad secretariat and was active in security and youth affairs. He died in this
position, when he traveled to the Negev to organize aid for the distant
settlements. He died on December 16, 1948, on the road leading from Chalutza
to Revivim, when the van he was driving drove over a landmine.
He is buried in Haifa.
Lubka Shefer [photo]
Daughter of Yitzhak and Regina, born in 1914 in Przemysl. During her childhood she was orphaned and was taken in by relatives. She was drawn to the Shomer ha'Tzair branch. In 1939 she made aliyah. At first she worked on Kibbutz Mitzpeh-Hayam, in Netanya. She later went to settle at Yad Mordechai. She worked for two years on the editorial board of Al ha'Mishmar, and later returned to her duties on the farm. Just before the War of Independence, she finished a regional course for using light weapons.
During the bombing and the Egyptian assault on the farm, she passed among the posts, running, crawling and jumping through trenches. She was unharmed by the shells exploding all around her. When it became necessary to abandon the place, she carried a wounded Palmach member, along with Yitzhak Rubinstein. Because of the heavy bombardment, the Chayot ha'Negev armored car could not reach them. Expecting aid to come from elsewhere, they remained with the wounded man, and there she was killed by the enemy on May 24, 1948.
* From the Yizkor Book published by the Ministry of Defense, 5716 (1956).[It seems that this note refers to this entire section, not just to the first entry as it may seem from the way the note is printed in the book. (ed)] Back
Editor's and Translator's notes
1. The organization of the former residents of Przemysl in Israel (tr.).
2. The Hebrew expression used her is ir va'em be'Yisrael which originates in the Bible (II Samuel, 20:19), and literally means a city and a mother in Israel. The implied meaning is that the city—Przemysl, in this case—is a mother to its surrounding villages; in other words, a metropolis. Presumably the writer uses this expression to imply that Przemysl, for it's Jewish inhabitants, was like a part of Israel, in a spiritual sense (tr.). Back
3. This refers to the situation at the time when this book was published (1964). At the present time (2000), there is no Przemysl landsmanschaft in Israel. The only known organization of former Przemysl Jewish residents is Congregation Tifereth Yosef Anshei Przemysl in New York (ed.) Back
4. Or landsmanschaft, organization of former Jewish residents (ed.) Back
5. The immigrants from Przemysl. 'oleh', 'olah', 'olim', 'olei', etc. are immigrants to Israel. The words are derived from aliyah, which literally means ascendance, but is used to refer to the act of immigrating to Israel. (tr.) Back
6. A smallholders' cooperative settlement, similar to a kibbutz. (tr.) Back
7. An underground voluntary Jewish self-defense organization established in Palestine during the British Mandate, mainly to combat Arab attacks. After the war, members of the Haganah who were stationed in Europe provided care for Jewish Survivors and organized illegal Aliya to Palestine (tr & ed.). Back
8. The Federation of Labor in Israel. (tr.) Back
9. Feuer. Spelled pey (phey), yod, resh. Possible alternative spelling: Foyer (ed). Back
10. Baba. Spelled bet/vet, bet/vet, heh. Possible alternative spelling: Bava or Beva (tr). Back
11. Burstein. Possible alternative spelling: Bursztyn (ed). Back
12. Goldstein. This name is spelled gimmel, lamed, sin/shin, tet, yod, yod, nun in the text, and with an extra tet between the lamed and the sin in the name index (ed.) Back
13. Salz. Spelled zayin, lamed, tsadi. This would suggest the spelling: Zaltz. However, this name is spelled Salz in other Przemysl sources (ed.). Back
14. Wirth. Although spelled in Hebrew vav, vav, resh, tet, this name appears in other Przemysl sources as Wirth. Possible alternative: Wurt, Wurth. The abbreviation eng. refers to the title engineer, which was used to denote that this person held a technical degree (ed.) Back
15. Speiser. Spelled sin, pey, yod, yod, zayin, resh. This name appears in other sources as Speiser. Possible alternative Speizer (ed.). Back
16. This is the only known Przemysl landsmanschaft still in existence. The organization is based in New York. (ed.) Back
17. The word Sick is omitted from the name of the organization in this title, however this is presumably a typo (tr.). Back
18. Contemporary Przemysl emblem depicts a bear with a cross over it. The word star in the original must have been an error (tr. & ed.) Back
19. Raps. Spelled resh, pey (phey), sameh. Possible alternative Repps, Rafs. (ed) Back
20. Memorial prayer for the dead. Lit. mentioning of the souls. (tr.) Back
21. Witzner. Possible alternative Wietzner. (ed) Back
22. This, obviously is a typo in the book. The Depression in the USA began in 1929 (ed) Back
23. Teacher, or tutor – usually refers to the teacher in a cheder, the school for Jewish boys. (tr.) Back
24. Furth. Possible alternative Furt. (ed.) Back
25. The American Joint Distribution Committee – a Jewish aid organization. (tr.) Back
26. Sussman. Spelled in Hebrew zayin, vav, samekh, mem, nun. This name appears in other Przemysl sources spelled as Sussman, that's why we spelled it this way here also. Possible alternative Zusman (ed.) Back
27. Salzberg. Spelled in Hebrew as zayin, lamed, tsadi, bet, resh, gimmel. This name appears in other Przemysl sources as Salzberg, that's why we transliterated it this way here also. Possible alternative Zaltzberg (ed.) Back
28. Lit., seed, core or nucleus. These were groups of young people who went through various social and training activities together, and then either settled in an established kibbutz or moshav, or founded their own new settlement. (tr.) Back
29. Presumably, the use of anonymous in this context, is meant to express the lack of recognition that these soldiers received for their sacrifices (tr.). Back
30. To make aliyah in this context means to immigrate to Israel. This phrase also refers to the honor of coming up to the bimah in the synagogue (ed.) Back
31. A large youth Zionist movement in Poland, with a secular socialist ideology. (tr.) Back
32. Lit., training kibbutz. Many of these agricultural training farms were set up throughout Europe, to prepare the youth for their future life and work on a kibbutz. (tr.) Back
33. We woud like to express our appreciation to Judith Springer for her feedback regarding the translation of this entry. Back
34. Before the British established their policy of sending Jewish refugees to Cyprus, they often held them at detention camps in Palestine, including the one at Atlit. (tr.) Back
35. On Oct. 10, 1945 the Palmach, the attack force of the Haganah, broke into the illegal immigrant detention camp at Atlit and freed its inhabitants. (tr.) Back
36. The Gush is used as a shortened way of referring to Gush Etzion(tr.) Back
37. Morawska Ostrawa. This town is now in the Czech Republic. (ed.) Back
38. Orde Wingate was a British commander who, while serving as an intelligence officer in Palestine in 1936-39, organized night patrols to repel Arab raids on Jewish communities. (tr.) Back
39. The Israeli matriculation exams, which every high-school student must pass. (tr.) Back
40. All-union Leninist Communist League Of Youth – a youth organization established 1918 in Russia. (tr.) Back
41. The original spells this word: aleph, vav, shin, vet, yod, nun, zadi, yod, mem – the yod, mem at the end of a word usually signifies the plural (Auschwitzim), however it is not clear why it is used in this case (tr.). Back
42. The Hitler Youth – the youth movement of the Nazi party. (tr.) Back
43. Irgun Zva'i Leumi – National Military Organization, which fought the British and the Arabs in Palestine. (tr.) Back
44. Lit., venture or daring. Refers to the difficult and often dangerous process of immigrating to Palestine during the mandate. The British authorities considered this immigration illegal, for the most part, and therefore it often had to be carried out clandestinely. (tr.) Back
45. The Israeli Scouts movement. (tr.) Back
46. An international religious Zionist movement, founded in 1902. (tr.) Back
47. Lit., group. These were agricultural settlements similar to a kibbutz, but based on a smaller, more cohesive group of members. (tr.) Back
48. The Mapam (United Workers' Party) newspaper, established in Palestine in the 1940's (tr.). Back
49. Gimnazjum (in Polish) – high school (ed.) Back
50. The striking force of the Haganah. (tr.) Back
51. Jewish illegal immigrants who arrived, or attempted to arrive, in Israel by means of Ha'apalah (see translator's note #.44) (tr). Back
52. The name of an area outside of Jerusalem, part of the Jerusalem Corridor which was fought over in the 1948 War of Independence (tr). Back
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