“Czudek” - Encyclopedia of Jewish
Communities in Poland, Volume III
(Poland)

49°57' 21°50' 

Translation of “Czudek” chapter from
Pinkas Hakehillot Polin

Published by Yad Vashem

Published in Jerusalem


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Acknowledgments

 

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for permission to put this material on the JewishGen web site.

This is a translation from: Pinkas Hakehillot Polin: Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities, Poland,
Volume III, page 303, published by Yad Vashem, Jerusalem


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(Page 303)

Czudek, Poland

(District of Rzeszów, Region of Lwow)

Translated by Jerrold Landau

YearGeneral
Population
Jewish
Population
18801,011
(or 1,978)
331
19001,214410
1921940332

Prior to 1326, Czudek was known to exist as a fortress under the private ownership of the nobility. The owners of the city granted the rights of a city to Czudek in 1461. The city was situated on a trade path that led to the east and the west. From the beginning of the 16th century, the tradesmen were organized into guilds. The tailors' and weavers' guilds had a particularly prominent position. During the era of the reformation until 1660, the residents of the city took the Calvinist Protestant sect upon themselves.

There were 171 Jews in Czudek in the middle of the 18th century. The following professions were registered among the 38 family heads: one smith, one saddle maker, one barber, and one beadle (shamash).

The fact that a rabbi was already employed by the end of the 18th century shows that Czudek was already an organized community. It is known to us that Rabbi Zeev-Wolf Halevi Horowitz served as rabbi in Czudek in 1793. The following served during the 19th century: Rabbi Meir Landau who occupied the rabbinic seat until 1889, the year he moved to Israel. He died in Tzfat. In his place, Rabbi Moshe the son of Rabbi Naftali-Menachem Hercyk was appointed. He served until 1912 in the rabbinical seat of his father-in-law, the aforementioned Rabbi Meir Landau.

We know about Zionist activities in Czudek primarily from the late 1920s. A Zionist organization was established there in 1927. The Hanoar Hatzioni organization was an active youth movement, primarily during the years 1935-1936, along with the Ezra pioneering movement.

In the elections for the 17th Zionist Congress, 34 electors voted 15 votes for the Working Land of Israel Block, and 19 votes for the General Zionists. For the 1935 Zionist Congress, 74 people with voting rights voted as follows: 44 for the General Zionists, 13 for the Working Land of Israel Block, and 14 for the State Party.

The Jews community in Czudek suffered from open anti-Semitism, which at times was strong. In November-December 1918, the Polish farmers from the surrounding villages attacked the Jewish population. Many were beaten and pillaged. A number of Jews were injured, including Rabbi Shmuel Hercyk.

We only have few details about the fate of the Jews of Czudek during the Second World War. We known that there was a Judenrat there, but we do not know its composition. Similarly, there was a branch of J.S.S. in Czudek, and a communal kitchen operated in February 1942. The Judenrat and the J.S.S. attempted to convince the German work office to employ Jews in the estates near the city. We do not know whether these efforts succeeded. It is possible that some Jews did indeed work in the estate in an unofficial manner. We are referring to an estate that was formerly in the possession of the Jewish Wilner family (in the village of Zaglobajn or Wola Zaglobajnska)

Like other settlements in the reason, an official ghetto was set up in the Jewish quarter of Czudek at the end of 1941 or the beginning of 1942. The ghetto was not fenced in, but its inhabitants were prohibited from leaving its bounds without permission from the authorities. Permits for workers to leave the ghetto were given by the German work office, whereas others were forced to try to get permits from the German police station in Sęziszów.

In June 1942, the Jews of Czudek were deported to the ghetto in Rzeszów. Apparently, a number of ill people and people with physical limitations were murdered on the spot. The fate of the deportees of Czudek in Rzeszów was the same as that of the fate of the local Jews: In July 1942, most of them were sent to their deaths in the Belzec Camp.


Bibliography:

Yad Vashem Archives: 021/16, 021, 19.
ATz”M: Z-3/178, Z-3/179, Z-4/226-24B, Z-4/234-13.

“Hanoar Hacijoni” June 15, 1935, May 15, 1936. “Jüdische Rundschau”, Nomvember 19, 1918; “Nowy Dziennik”, February 17, 1927, March 17, 1927, November 14, 1927, August 20, 1928, January 12, 1935, April 23, 1935, March 28, 1936.


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