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Bibliography

For footnotes, glossary and supplement

Alpert, Nachum. The Destruction of Slonim Jewry, the Story of the Jews of Slonim During the Holocaust, New York 1989.
Bartniczak, Mieczysław. Ostrów Mazowiecka i Okolice, Warszawa 1987
Cohen, Rich. The Avengers, A Jewish War Story, New York 2000.
Dawidowicz, Lucy S. From that Place and Time, A Memoir 1938-1947, New York 1989.
Dawidowicz, Lucy S. the War Against the Jews 1933-1945, U.S.A. and Canada 1975.
Duffy, Peter. The Bielski Brothers, New York 2003.
Eliach,, Yaffa. There Once was a World, Little, Brown & Company, New York 1998.
Glustrom, Simon. The Language of Judaism, U.S.A. 1994
Harkavy, Aleksander. Yiddish-English, English-Yiddish Dictionary, New York 1898.
Harkavy, Aleksander. Yiddish-English-Hebrew Dictionary, New York 1928.
Heller, Celia S. On The Edge of Destruction: Jews of Poland between the Two World Wars, New York 1980 and Detroit 1994.
Hertzberg, Arthur. The Zionist Idea, Philadelphia 1997.
Herzl Press. Polish Jewry 1914-1939, New York 1983.
Holocaust Chronicle a History in Words and Pictures. Publications International Ltd. 2000
Inbal, Shimshon. User-Friendly English-Hebrew, Hebrew-English Dictionary, Jerusalem 5th ed. 1998.
Jewish Virtual Library, a Division of the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, www.us-israel.org
Junior Judiaca, Encyclopedia Judaica for Youth, CD-ROM, C.D.I. Systems 1992 (LTD) and Keter.
Kasnett, Rabbi Yitzchak. The World That Was: Poland, The living Memorial with the Hebrew Academy of Cleveland 1997.
Katzner, Kenneth. English-Russian, Russian-English Dictionary, U.S.A. and Canada 1994.
Kovner, Abba. Scrolls of Testimony, English translation Philadelphia 2001.
Laqueur, Walter. A History of Zionism from the French Revolution to the Establishment of the State of Israel, New York 1972, 1976, 2003.
MacMillan, Margaret. Paris 1919 Six Months that Changed the World., U.S.A. 2003
Niborski, Yitskhok with Neuberg, Simon. Dictionnaiure des mots d'origine hébraique et Araméenne en usage dans la langue yiddish, Paris, 1999.
Niborski, Yitskhok with Neuberg, Simon. Dictionnaire yiddish-français, Paris 2002.
Pogonowski, Iwo C. Polish-English, English Polish Dictionary, U.S.A. 1995.
Robinson, George. Essential Judaism, A Complete Guide to Beliefs, Customs and Rituals, New York 2000.
Sachar, Howard M. A History of Israel from the Rise of Zionism to our Time, New York 1976.
Shapiro, Chaim. Once Upon a Shtetl. Brooklyn, NY 1996.
Telushkin, Rabbi Joseph. Jewish Literacy, New York 1991.
Weinreich, Uriel. Modern English-Yiddish, Yiddish English Dictionary, New York 1968.
Wiesenthal, Simon, Every Day Remembrance Day, Henry Holt and Company, Inc., New York 1987


 

Glossary

 
A
 
Admor (Pl. Admorim) Great Hasidic rabbi.
Agudas Yisroel (Hebrew, “League of Israel”) Orthodox anti-Zionist party.
A”h (Hebrew abbreviation of olev hasholom) May he/she rest in peace.
Aktion Round-up of Jews by the Nazis for deportation, arrest and transportation to the places of killing.
Aliyah (Hebrew, lit. “ascent”) Here it means immigration to Israel.
Al HaMishmar Split from General Zionists 1930s and under Izhak Greenbaum and Moshe Kleinbaum (Sneh) had a radical policy toward the Mandate government, prioritized pioneering and cooperated with the Zionist Labour movement.
Amalek Has come to mean enemy of the Jews or an evil person.
Armia Krajowa (Polish, “AK” or “Home Army”) Polish underground army run by the Polish Government-in-exile in London during World War II. They were vicious enemies of the Jews and this policy continued after liberation.
Amkha The Jewish people, the great masses, used mainly to signify common Jewish labourers or proletariat.
Automat anything run mechanically.
Av Beth Din Head of the rabbinical court.
 
B
 
Badchen Entertainer at a wedding, specializing in humorous and sentimental semi-improvised rhymes.
Bal Korah Reader of the law in the synagogue.
Bal Musaf Cantor for the additional service on Shabes and holidays.
Bal Tefillah Prayer leader in the synagogue.
Bar Mitzvah (Hebrew, lit. “son of the commandment”). A boy of thirteen is obligated observe the commandments; the ceremony marking the fact that a boy has reached thirteen.
Besmedresh (Pl. botei medrashim, Hebrew Beit HaMidrash) Small orthodox synagogue, prayer and study house; also used as a meeting hall.
Bet Din (Hebrew, lit. “house of judgment”) A rabbinical court of law.
Betar (pronounced Beytar) Abbreviation for Brit [covenant] Trumpeldor. Militant youth group of the Revisionist Zionist party.
Bikur Holim (Visiting the sick) A society of volunteers that provided for the ill who could not depend on their families.
Bima Platform in the Synagogue from which the Torah is read.
Bobeh Grandmother.
Bulbehs Common jargon for potatoes. Kartofel was the word generally used.
Bund (Yiddish, “union”) Abbreviation for Algemeyner Yiddisher Arbeiter Bund in Lite, Poylin, un Rusland. “General Jewish Workers' Union in Lithuania, Poland and Russia.” A Jewish socialist party founded in Vilna in 1897. Supported Jewish rights and Yiddish. Was anti-Zionist.
 
C
 
Centos Acronym of Centrala Towarzystwa nad Sierotami [National Society for the Care of Orphans].
Chabad Acronym (Chokhma “wisdom”, Binah “insight”, Da'at “knowledge.) Used to designate Lubavitch Hasidism.
Chofetz Chaim is what the religious world called Rabbi Israel Meier, the gaon of Radin [Raduñ] yeshiva.
Chaieh Odem (“The Life of Man”) A popular book by Reb Abraham Dancyg (1748-1820), in which is found a short version of the laws of the Shulkhan Arukh.
Cholent A baked dish of meat, potatoes and vegetables eaten on Shabes, kept warm from the day before in the baker's oven.
 
D
 
Dayan: A rabbinical court Judge.
Dozor: (Polish, “Surveillance”) A member of The Kehila (Jewish Community Council).
Droshky: (Russian) A low-slung, horse-drawn carriage with four wheels fitted with rubber tires. The driver sat up front on a high seat. The cab had two wooden facing wooden benches with room for a total of 4 passengers and a folding top that could be raised in bad weather.
DP Camp Displaced Persons Camp – established after WWII for people unable to return to their country of birth.
Duma The short-lived Russian Parliament of World War One.
E
 
Eating days See Essen teg.
Ein Jankew (in Hebrew, Ein Yakov “Jacob's Spring”). One of the best known works of rabbinic literature. It is a collection of legends, fables and moralistic passages selected from the Babylonian andJerusalem Talmuds, with a commentary by Rashi, compiled by Rabbi Jakob ben Solomon ibn Habib, a recent exile from spain at the end of the 15th century, in Salonika.
Endecja: (Narodowa Demokracja)The National Democratic Party inPoland, known for its anti-Semitism.
Endekes: Members of Endecja.
Etzel: Hebrew acronym for Irgun Zwei Le'umi, usually called Irgun, military arm of Revisionist Zionist movement.
Erev: (Hebrew “evening”) the evening before a holiday.
Eruv A boundary within which it is permissible to carry things on Shabes and holidays, delineated by a wire strung from poles around the shtetl.
Esrog A citron; “the fruit of goodly trees”; carried with the lulav in the synagogue during Sukes.
Essen teg (Yiddish “eating days”) Yeshiva students, who were boarding at the school, were given meals by volunteer families. There weren't always enough volunteers to feed all the students every day, so some days these young boys didn't eat. The days they had somebody to feed them were called “eating days”.
 
F
 
Folks Zaitung (Yiddish “People's Newspaper”) Newspaper that was issued by the Bund.
 
G
 
Gabe (Hebrew gabai) Trustee or warden of a public institution, especially a synagogue.
Gaon (pl. Geonim; Hebrew, “eminence, excellence”) An eminent rabbinical scholar.
Gemore (Hebrew, Gemara, “completion”) discussions by rabbinic teachers on Mishnah and the conclusions reached; colloquial term for the Talmud and its study.
General Zionists Saw Hebrew as the national language and supported the Tarbut movement.
Gmiles Khesed A fund that provided interest free loans, the pillar of every shtetl.
Groschen (Polish) small coins, like pennies.
Gubernia Russian equivalent of a Province or state.
Gymnasia Polish high school.
 
H
 
HaAvod Zionist work program.
Hagadah (Pl. Hagadot) The prayer manual used during the Jewish Passover Seder.
Haganah The illegal armed defenders of the Jewish community in what was British Palestine (now Israel).
Halerites Members of General Haler's army in Poland. They were anti-Semitic.
HaMeletz (Hebrew “The Advocate”) Hebrew newspaper means “The Advocate”. It was the first Hebrew publication in Tsarist Russia.
Hanikeh (Hebrew, Hanukkah) The eight-day holiday commemorating the purification of the Temple in Jerusalem by the Maccabees.
HaNoar HaZioni (Heb. “Guards of Zion”). A Zionist youth group.
Haroses Made of wine, apples and nuts and cinnamon, a symbolic food for Passover representing the mortar used by Jewish slaves in Egypt when building for Pharoah
HaShomer HaLeumi (Hebrew “National Guard”) Zionist youth group.
HaShomer HaTzair (Young Guard) Zionist youth group, most extreme in its socialism.
Hasid (Hebrew, “pious one”) A follower of Hasidism founded in the first half of the eighteenth century by Israel Bal Shem Tov. Haskalah Jewish enlightenment movement of the eighteenth and nineteenth century in Europe.
Hatikvah (Hebrew “The Hope”) National anthem of Israel.
Hatsfira (Hebrew means “Dawn”) Hebrew newspaper published in Warsaw.
Havdalah (Hebrew “separation”) The ceremony using wine, spices and a braided candle that signifies the end of Shabes. Heder (Pl. Hederim) Traditional Jewish elementary school for boys.
HeHalutz A non-political, international agency to develop pioneers for Israel. It was created in 1924 at a meeting Danzig [Gdansk], Poland.
Hovevei Zion (Hebrew “Lovers of Zion”) One of the first Zionist organizations.
Hy”d Whose death G-D should revenge. Used for victims of the Holocaust.
 
I
 
Iluy Genius.
Intermmediate days The four days in the middle of Passover. Considered ordinary work days, not holy days.
 
J
 
The “Joint” “Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers”, the leading American Jewish relief Organization, founded November 17, 1914, during World War One.
 
K
 
Kabbalah The study of mysticism.
Kaddish The Jewish memorial prayer for the dead, recited during the eleven month period of mourning and on the anniversary of the death.
Kapote A Long, black coat worn by Orthodox Jews in Eastern Europe.
Kehilla Jewish Community Council
Keren HaYesod (Foundation Fund) Zionist Organization's fund to finance infrastructure in Israel.
Keren Kayemet Jewish National Fund
Kest Room and board given to a son-in-law to enable him to continue studying.
Khakhnasas Kalah (means “Preparation of the bride”) A fund that helped outfit poor brides-to-be.
Khakhnasas Orhim “Hospitality”, an organization that provided food and lodging for visitors staying overnight.
Khamishoser bi-shvat See Tu B'shvat.
Khazal
Hebrew Acronym for khokhmeynu zikhroynem evrokhe – our sages, blessed be their memories.
Khevra Society
Khevra Kadisha (Aramaic, “Holy Society”) Voluntary Burial Society.
Khevra Tavat A prayer shawl and phylactery Society. Rashi acronym for Tallis and Tefilin.
Khol Hamoed The intermediate days of Sukes and Pesach, during which time business can be conducted.
Khumash (Pl. khumashim) The first five books of the Bible, also known as the Pentateuch and Tanakh.
Khuppah The canopy under which a wedding ceremony takes place.
Kibbutz (pl. kibbutzim) Collective farm in Israel.
Klezmer (pl. klezmorim) Musicians.
Kol Nidre (Aramaic, “all vows”) Prayer sung on the eve of Yon Kipper, absolving Jews of all vows made in the previous year to G-d.
Kosher (Hebrew, “proper” or “ritually correct”) Traditional Jewish dietary laws based on biblical legislation.
 
L
 
Lag Boymer (Hebrew, Lag B'Omer) A Jewish festival commemorating the revolt of Rabbi Akiva's students against the Romans. Traditionally celebrated with outings to the countryside.
Lamed-Vavnik (Yiddish, “one of the thirty- six”) According to legend, the fate of the human race rests on the shoulders of the thirty-six truly righteous ones of each generation. They are designated by the Hebrew letters for the number thirty-six, lamed-vav.
Landsmanschaft Social and mutual aid society founded by immigrants, in their new countries, from the same town in Eastern Europe.
Landslayt people who came from the same town or region in Europe.
Landsman see Landslayt.
L'Chaim (lit. “To Life”) Used as a toast or to signify Jews having a drink of liquor together.
Lechai Underground Jewish paramilitary under British mandate.
Linat HaZedek (Hebrew “overnight righteous”) A volunteer organization that took care of poor patients in need of medical care.
Litvak Lithuanian; can also mean Misnaged as most Lithuanian Jews were not Hasidim.
L'Ma'an HaZioni For the sake of Zion – a Zionist group.
Lulav The interwoven branches of palm, willow and myrtle used in celebrating Sukes.
 
M
 
Ma'ariv Evening prayer service.
Magid (Hebrew, “speaker”) A preacher.
Makhzor (Pl. Makhzorim) Prayer book for High Holidays and Festivals
Mapai Labour Party in Israel.
Mashgiakh is responsible for guaranteeing the laws of kashrut [keeping kosher] are scrupulously observed in public and commercial kitchens.
Maskil (Hebrew, “the enlightened one”, pl. maskilim) Eighteenth and nineteenth century Jews engaged in secular studies; adherents of Haskalah.
Matzah Unleavened bread eaten on Passover.
Mazel Tov (Hebrew) Good luck, congratulations.
Melamed (pl. melamdim) Hebrew teacher for boys.
Mezuzah (Pl. mezuzes, Hebrew “doorpost”) A parchment scroll with a selected Torah verse, placed in a container and affixed to the right door post of houses and rooms.
Midrash (From Hebrew darash, “to inquire” and therefore means “exposition” (of scripture). It refers to commentaries used to Interpret Jewish scripture. Midrash may focus on religious practices or ethical ideas, legends and allegories.
Mikveh Ritual immersion pool; bath house.
Minkhah Afternoon prayer service.
Minyan (Pl. minyonim) A prayer quorum of tenmen over the age of thirteen, the minimum needed for certain religious services.
Mi shebeirakh Prayer said for somebody who is is ill, praying for their full recovery.
Mishnah The name for the sixty-three tractates of the codified oral law set down by Rabbi Judah. The mishnah and rabbinic discussions (known as the Gemore) comprise the Talmud. Gemore and Talmud are used interchangeably.
Mishnayes a volume of Mishnah.
Misnaged (pl. Misnagdim; in Hebrew pronounced Mitnaged, “opposer”) Championed intellectual rigors of the Talmud therefore bitterly opposed the Hasidim because they emphasized piety and ritual rather than learning.
Mitzvah (pl. mitzvos) Good deed; commandment.
Mizrahi Zionist religious movement and party founded by Rabbi Isaac Jakob Reines, of Lida.
Moreh tzadek Teacher.
Moshav A cooperative in Israel where all parties share equally in the profits.
Moyrah-Hoyrah A rabbi, one who decides matters of rabbinical law.
Musar Nineteenth century movement, headed by Rabbi Israel Lipkin, known as Rabbi Israel Salanter, (1810-1883) that focused on moral principles, unremitting effort in self- improvement and personal ethics.
 
N
 
Naras National Radical Camp ONR – Fascist political party founded 1933.
N”h (Hebrew acronym for Nviim & ksuvim) prophets and the third part of the Pentateuch.
N.K.V.D. Initials of Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del “the National Ministry for Internal Affairs”, the secret security police of the Soviet Union. Later the name was changed to K.G.B., Komitet Gosudarstenoi Bezopasnosti “the State Security Office”.
N”y Abbr. for neyre yoer “May his light shine”. Wish for long life added after somebody's name in a letter.
 
O
 
Orekh Chaim First part of the Shulkhan Arukh dealing with laws pertaining to praying, blessings, Shabes, Yon-tef, etc.
 
P
 
Palmach The elite force of the Israeli army during the War of Independence.
Pesakh (Hebrew “Passover”) The eight-day holiday commemorates the Exodus or deliverance of the Hebrew people from slavery in Egypt. The first two and last two days are Holy days. The four days in the middle are called intermediate days and are not holy days.
Pfenig German penny.
Piaskes (Polish piasek, “sand”) The unpaved streets in the shtetl that turned to mud in the rain.
Pidyon Shvuyim Redeeming captives, ransoming Jews being held hostage.
Poalei Zion Left (Hebrew, “Workers of Zion”) Zionist movement and party Tried to enter the Comintern (USSR) in 1921 but was rejected because it was Zionist.
Poalei Zion ZS – (Z.S. means “Zionist Socialist”) Labour Zionist movement and political party with the largest Kibbutz movement.
Purim Festival commemorating the deliverance of Jews in Persia from Haman.
Pushke (pushkele dimunutive) a collection box for charitable donations. The best known is the blue and white JNF box.
 
R
 
Rambam Acronym of Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (1135-1204. Also known as Maimonides, the famous scholar and philosopher who wrote the first systematic code of all Jew Law, the Mishneh Torah.
Rashi Acronym for Rabbi Shlomo ben Isaac (1040-1105) of the Rhineland, is Judaism's greatest teacher. His commentaries on Torah and Talmud are still studied today.
Reb Honourific title that generally means Mr.
Rebbe Hasidic rabbi, teacher or master.
Rebetzin (Yiddish) A rabbi's wife.
Revisionists Far-right, militant Zionist party.
Rosheshoneh (Hebrew Rosh Hashanah, “head of the year”) The start of the Jewish NewYear.
Rov A Misnaged rabbi.
Rynek Market place; in Polish Plac Kzienznej Anny Mazowieckiej.
 
S
 
Sabra Native born Israeli.
Sadzavka (Polish “pool”) The natural pond on Warszawska Street, in the park.
Seder (Hebrew, “order”) The ritual ceremony and dinner held on the first two nights of Pesach.
Sejm The Polish Parliament.
Semikhah (Hebrew, “laying of the hands”) Ordination of a rabbi.
Shabes (Hebrew, Shabbat) The Jewish Sabbath begins at sundown Friday night and ends at sundown Saturday evening.
Shabes HaGadol The Sabbath just before Pesach.
Shabes Nachmu (Hebrew, Shabbat Nachamu, means Sabbath of Consolation). The Sabbath following Tishebov, the date Jews mourn the destruction of the Temples in Jerusalem,
Shabes Shuva (Shabes of Repentance or Returning) It is the Sabbath that falls between Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur. A sermon is given about repentance.
Shalakhmones Gifts, mainly food, given on Purim to friends and acquaintances.
Shamas (lit. “servant”) The Attendant in a synagogue, or beadle; rabbi's personal assistant.
Shas (acronym for Shisha Sidrei, the “six orders”) Refers to the Talmud comprising the six orders of the Mishnah: Zeraim (Seeds), Moed (Set Feasts), Nashim (Women)m Nezikin (Damages), Kodashim (Hallowed Things), and Toharot (lit. Purity).
Shavuos Jewish holiday that celebrates receiving the Ten Commandments and the Torah.
Shekel was a biblical coin; The Zionist Organization used the word Shekel for its dues.
Shema Yisroel (“Hear O Israel”) Title of the fundamental, central prayer of Jewish liturgy, proclaiming the belief in one G-d. It is repeated three times a day by observant Jews.
Shlita”a “May he live to see happy days.” This is written after the name of an eminent man.
Shmoneh Esrey (Hebrew, Eighteen Blessings) Also called the Amidah. It is the central prayer during services and is recited three times a day, on Shabes and holidays. The version recited on holidays only has seven blessings, but is still called Shmoneh Esrey.
Shmura Matzah Unleavened bread baked by Orthodox Jews and carefully watched over to insure all the pertinent laws for baking matzot are observed.
Shoah (Hebrew) Holocaust.
Shofar Ram's horn sounded in shul during the ten days from New Year to the Day of Atonement.
Shomer Guard.
Shoy”b (abbreviation shoykhet-boidek) Ritual slaughter and examiner.
Shoykhet Jewish ritual slaughterer.
Shoykhet vboidek Jewish ritual slaughter and Examiner of the animal or fowl to verify if it is kosher.
Shtibl (pl. “Shtiblakh”, Yiddish “little house”) Small prayer house used by Hasidim.
Shtreimel Fur-trimmed round hat worn by rabbis and Hasidic Jews on the Sabbath and holidays.
Shul: (Yiddish) synagogue.
Shulkhan Arukh (lit. “the prepared table”) Sixteenth century compilation of Jewish ritual laws, put together by Joseph Caro.
Shvues An early summer holiday celebrating the gathering of the first fruits and the giving of the Torah to the Jews.
Sidur (Pl. Sidorim) Sabbath and daily prayer book.
Simcha Celebration, such as a wedding.
Soyfer Scribe
Soyfer st”m (st”m is an acronym for sforim, tefillin, mezuzos – holy books, phylacteries, mezuzahs) therefore a scribe of the above.
Sude Shlosha (Hebrew, lit. third meal). The meal eaten just before the end of Shabes.
Suke Booth built for Sukes, where meals are eaten.
Sukes (Hebrew, Sukkoth) Feast of Tabernacles, celebrating the harvest.
 
T
 
Takhmoni Hebrew high school belonging to the Mizrahi movement.
Tallis (Pl. Taleysim) Prayer shawl, with fringes, worn by men.
Talmud The mishnah and the gemore make up the Talmud. There are two Talmuds, the Yerushalmi (“Jerusalem”) and the Bavli (“Babylonian”). The Babylon edition is more extension having been written about three hundred years later, therefore it became the most authoritative and is the Talmud used today.
Talmud Torah A free elementary school for poor boys.
Tanaim (Aramaic, “teachers”) Rabbis whose views are cited in the Mishnah. Rabbis cited in the Gemore are Amoraim (“explainers” or “interpreters”). Since the Tanaim lived earlier than the Amoraim, closer to the time of Moses and the revelation at Sinai, their teachings are considered more authoritative.
Tandetnikes Dealers in mass-produced, cheap clothing; second hand dealer.
Tarbut (means cultural) Hebrew school supported by the General Zionists.
Tefillin Two small leather boxes containing texts from the Pentateuch worn by Jewish men during morning prayers, one on the head and one on the right arm. For origin of this custom see Deuteronomy 6:8.
Teg See essen teg.
Tekhina Woman's Yiddish prayer book.
Tishebov (Hebrew Tisha B'Av “ninth of Av” [July]) A Jewish day of fasting and mourning to commemorate the destruction of the first and second Temples in Jerusalem. The Book of Lamentations is read in shul.
Tosefus Important commentaries on the Talmud, not included in the Mishnah, written between the 12thand 14th century.
Treyf Anything that is not kosher.
Tsitsis Fringed garment worn as an under-garment by Orthodox Jews.
Tsitsis Kanfes Ritual four cornered garment.
Tu B'shvat Holiday called the “New Year of the Trees”.
Tzadik A wise man, great scholar.
Tzukunft (Yiddish, Future) Bund Youth group.
 
U
 
Ulica (Polish) Street
Unesaneh Tokef One of the most famous prayers said on Rosheshone written in the eleventh century by Rabbi Amnon. The prayer begins with “On Rosheshone it is written and on Yon Kipper it is sealed. How many shall leave this world and how many shall be born into it. Who shall live and who shall die. Who shall live out the limit of his days and who shall not, who shall perish by fire and who by water…who shall be at peace and who shall be tormented…But penitence, prayer and good deeds can annul the severity of the decree.”
 
V
 
Verst Russian measure of distance equivalent to about two-thirds of a mile; a kilometer.
 
W
 
Wailing Wall The wall of the Temple that is still standing. Today called the Kotel in Hebrew and Western Wall in English.
Wasermacher water maker.
Waser Treger (Yiddish) Water carrier – men who carried water from the pumps to people's homes. There was no running water in Ostrowa homes until 1927.
WIZO Women's International Zionist Organization.
Wodoczong (Polish) water pump.
 
Y
 
Yavneh Hebrew School sponsored by Mizrahi, dedicated to Zionism and Judaism.
Yeshiva (pl. yeshivot; Hebrew meaning “seated”) A school devoted to learning Talmud.
Yiches The merit earned, through doing good deeds by an individual while they were alive that reflects on the worthiness of the entire family for generations.
Yomim Neroim (The Days of Awe) – the ten days between New Year and the Day of Atonement; the High Holy Days.
Yonkiper (Hebrew, Yom Kippur) The Day of Atonement.
Yontef (Pl. Yontoyvim, Hebrew Yom Tov) Religious holiday when Jews do not work.
Yohrtsait Anniversary of a death.
Ym”sh May his name be cursed. Used after the names of Jewry's enemies.
 
Z
 
Zeygermacher watchmaker
Zemst Ves (Russian) Union of the Assemblies [in Russia].
Zeyde Grandfather
Z”l Of blessed memory.
Zy”e Acronym for Skhus Yogn Oleinu – May his merits protect us.
Zz”l Of blessed, righteous memory.
Zzvl”h Hebrew acronym for zecher tzadik v'kadosh livracha meaning: of blessed righteous and holy memory.
Zohar “Book of Splendour”; the main literary work of Kabbalah.

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