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[Pages 188-190]

Ieud

(Romania)

47°41' 24°14'

Romanian: Ieud
Hungarian: Jód

Translated by Jerrold Landau

Edited by Yocheved Klausner

It is a village about 30 kilometers southeast of the district city of Sziget. All of its residents were Romanians.

Jewish Population

YearPopulationPercentage
of Jews in the
General
Population
18301308.9
192036012.8
193028610.1
19412177.2

 

The Beginning of the Jewish Settlement

The first Jews settled in Ieud at the beginning of the 18th century. In the census of Jews from 1728, one Jew named Israel was mentioned there, without a wife and children. He was under the protection of the local official who received a directive from the central authorities to grant that Jew the rights of settlement. We do not know why this Jew earned the intervention of the authorities. His occupation was distilling liquor. It is almost certain that he left the village after a brief period and settled in the interior of the country. In any case, no Jews were listed in the census of 1735. In the census of 1746, a Jew is mentioned once again (his name is not registered), with a wife and three children. He also had a servant.

Twenty-two years later, in the census of 1768, we already find four Jewish families, totaling 14 individuals, in the village. The heads of the households were: Leib Jakubovitch, a couple without children, listed as a peddler who paid lease fees of 10.07 florin per year; Yitzhak Iszájovics, with a wife and three children, who paid lease fees of 30 florin per year; Yankel (family name not listed), with a wife and child, who paid lease fees of 12.40 florin per year; the fourth Jew was Leib Bumbul, with a wife and two children – a very wealthy man who paid lease fees of 130 florin per year. Like the two previous ones, in the registry he is listed as being occupied with the distilling of strong drink.

We do not have knowledge in order to determine when the community of Ieud was established. It seems that it was at the beginning of the 19th century. The synagogue was built during that era (it is mentioned in the census of 1830). The cemetery and ritual bath [mikva] already existed prior to that. From among the communal societies, we know of the Chevra Mishnayot [Mishna study group] had already existed in the year 5640 (1880) under the leadership of Reb Israel Ganz (mentioned among the signatories of the book Aryeh Devei Ilai, Przemysl, 5640 1880).

In the census of 1830, the following heads of family are listed (number of individuals in parentheses):

Lozer Lerner (6), Yankel Glick (3), Shimon Appel (7), David Appel (7), the widow Jakab (2), Marco Fruchter (4), Leizer Malek (3), Izak Appel (4), the widow Lipo (4), Leib Shlomovitch (3), the widow Hershko (4), Josif Traub (6), Shmuel Wozner (6), Janku Glick (4), Yanku Sacks (11), Fishel Witar (5), Moshe Mendelovitch (3), Hersh Santurnas (5), Yosef Malek, Menashe Solai (8), Lupo Appel, Sh. Shura (9), the widow Shalom (5), Mendel Santurnas (5), Izak Zimer (5), Avraham Malek (2), Yaakov Ferdinand (5), Yosef Malek (6), the widow Izik (8), Meir Appel (7), Moshko Buk (8).

The communal notables and administrators from the 1880s until the 20th century were: Reb Yitzchak Mordechai the son of Feiga, Reb Moshe Eliezer Glick, Reb Zeev Wolf Appel, Reb Shlomo Chaim Einhorn, Reb Israel Ganz, Reb Yosef Mordechai Kahana, Reb Meir Appel, Reb David Appel, Reb Izik Menachem Wiesel, Reb Shlomo Greenfeld, Reb Yaakov Aryeh Appel, his son Reb Betzalel Appel, Reb Yosef Yom Tov Wiesel, Reb Shlomo Appel (he was the gabbai of the Chevra Kadisha [Burial Society] in 5665 / 1905), Reb Yosef Fruchter who was a great scholar and whose sons were scholars. He owned a tavern. He died before the First World War under tragic circumstances. Several gentiles who drank liquor in his tavern died suddenly. The police appeared immediately and suspected him of selling poisoned liquor. Out of great fear, he responded that this was impossible, and took the liquor that he had been selling and drank a bit. He immediately fell over and died on the spot. It became clear that the wholesalers who had provided the liquor had made an error, and a trial was conducted against them.

For a short time, the community of Ieud (along with the community of Kechnia [Cuhca]) employed Rabbi Yechezkel Widman as the rabbi. He was chosen as the rabbi of the community of Sãcel (see entry) in the year 5682 (1922). When he lived in Ieud, he began to edit the Degel Hatorah, a Torah publication of the Yeshiva of Oberwischau [Vişeul de Sus]. Rabbi Yechezkel Widman was murdered in the Holocaust. The following responsum was issued to him in Ieud:

Responsa Imre Yosher, Section II, paragraph 27: Regarding the question from a certain poor man who had a beehive. During the hot season when they would reproduce, they would gather together and an entire swarm would suddenly separate from their mother, and sometimes take hold of a branch of a tree. If they would not be gathered quickly, they would escape. He asked if this were to happen on the Sabbath, would it be permitted to order a gentile to gather them. The loss amounts to 10 guilder for each swarm, and this is a great loss for a poor person…

From among the scholars in Ieud, we will mention Reb Yaakov Aryeh Appel, who served as a rabbi. He was a veteran Visznitz Hassid from the era of the Tzemach Tzedek. He was a wealthy merchant, but he devoted most of his time to Torah. He died on 30 Kislev 5689 (1928) [In Zichron Tzadikim it is listed in error as 4 Nissan]. He left behind two large works: Aron Betzalel on Tractate Beitzah, and Eil Miluim on the Torah in an exegetical and Hassidic style. Almost all of his writings were lost in the Holocaust. His grandson Reb David Appel published those that remained:

The booklet Aron Betzalel and Eil Miluim, a few items that remained

[Page 189]

in didactics and lore from… Rabbi Yaakov Aryeh (Leib) of holy blessed memory from Ieud Maramures. Published with the help of Heaven by his grandson David Appel. Tel Aviv 5735 (1975). [4], 36, [3], pages. Printed at the end of the memorial book of Mahari'v by Rabbi Yechezkel Widman.

Rabbi Shlomo Greenfeld, the son of the Gaon Rabbi Yehuda Greenfeld of Smiheli and son-in-law of Reb Welvel Appel, a primary student of the author of Arugat Habosem, was a different scholar. A responsa to him in the Arugat Habosem Responsa Orach Chaim paragraph 146 is as follows: To the honor of my beloved student, the sharp young man... regarding about the difficulty you had in the words of the Ra'n.

The Jewish community of Ieud continually contracted from the end of the First World War. The Jewish population of the village fell by 150 individuals between the years 1920-1940. This was because of difficulties in livelihood. Those who left tried their luck in various cities of the country, and some of them immigrated overseas.

The community of Ieud had its own uniqueness. A significant portion of the gentile population were educated, and many of the youths were graced with intelligence (along with this, they were also afflicted with anti-Semitism). Among the Jews of Ieud, on the other hand, many were scholars and knowledgeable in Torah. I will mention several of them. Reb Welvel Appel, who was the head of the community for many years, and his son-in-law the aforementioned Rabbi Shlomo Greenfeld. The son-in-law of Reb Welvel Wiesel was also a great scholar as well as astute in the ways of the world. Reb Meir Appel, the son-in-law of Rabbi Yechezkel Midman, as well as Reb Yaakov Leib Appel were also great scholars. Other scholars included Reb Eliezer Katz, Reb Itzik Michel Wiesel, and Reb Moshe Eliezer Glick – who owned a store but dedicated all of his free time to Torah. He was the son of Reb Shaul Leib Glick. Reb Israel Markovitch was an honorable householder. All of his sons were scholars and Torah experts, chief among them was the rabbi of Skulen, Rabbi Shlomo Yosef (see entry). The son of Reb Shmuel Markovitch was the head of the Talmud Torah in Ieud. Reb Anshel and Reb Yaakov were shochtim in other places. His son-in-law Reb Shaul Klueger was a shochet in Mitl-Vishava [Vişeul de Mijloc].

mar189b.jpg Reb Chaim Mordechai Edelstein
Reb Chaim Mordechai Edelstein

 

The shochet Rabbi Izik Anshel was also a great scholar and rabbinical teacher, and his influence on the Jews of the village was decisive. The teacher Rabbi Avraham Yaakov Tessler, who disseminated Torah to the children of Ieud for tens of years, was a personality appreciated and accepted by the Jews of the village. Reb Yosef Cohen-Flugman and Reb Chaim Cohen were also scholars, as were the educator Reb Chaim Mordechai Edelstein and his brother Reb Moshe Edelstein. It is worthwhile to note the wife of Nachum Edelstein, Pesel, who would collect challas for the poor of the village. Her husband was the scribe Nachum Edelstein. Reb David Katz was the gabbai of the Beit Midrash. He was arrested by the Hungarian authorities immediately after the regime changed, and traces of him were lost.

mar189a.jpg Rabbi Shlomo Yosef Markovitch
Rabbi Shlomo Yosef Markovitch

 

Several natives of Ieud gained renown also beyond the village, such as Rabbi Shlomo Yosef Markovitch. He was a great genius from the time of his childhood, and he had unusual talents. His father Reb Israel Hirsch owned a butcher shop, and educated his children in Torah and fear of Heaven. His mother Batya Leah (the daughter of Reb Mordechai Lachs of Masif) was learned. Reb Shlomo Yosef Markovitch, aside from being a scholar, and a genius in Torah, was well-read and was a great expert in philosophical works such as the Guide to the Perplexed, The Kuzari, the Book of Principles, and others. At a young age, he was chosen as the rabbi of the community of Sculeni in Bessarabia. He was murdered in sanctification of the Divine Name in Transnistria.

The writer Yehuda Edelstein (the son of the aforementioned Nachum) was one of the first to be active in the Zionist circles in Transylvania. After the First World War, he settled in Klausenburg and became a Hebrew teacher there in the Tarbut School. He wrote a text book for the study of Hebrew in the form of a story. He made aliya to Israel in the summer of 1925. He worked in the editorial staff of the Haboker daily newspaper for 24 years until 1959. He worked in literature and published a comprehensive, two volume biography of Avraham Shapira. He translated from Hungarian the book of Tovia Silagei-Vindt on the Kaliver Tzadik, and added his own addenda. Haggai Eshed, a member of the editorial staff of Davar was Yehuda Edelstein's son. It is appropriate to add an interesting note about his history, while he was still a young lad in the home of his father in Ieud. With the innocence of a young child, Yehuda Edelstein sent a letter of complaint to Kaiser Franz Josef regarding the gentiles who threw stones at the Jewish homes as they left church on their Easter holiday. The following year, three days before the gentile holiday, an entire brigade of soldiers suddenly arrived in Ieud in order to

[Page 190]

keep the peace. This angered the farmers very much, and he was forced to leave the village.

Reb Hillel the son of Reb Kalman Roth was an activist in Agudat Israel. After the war, he set up a dormitory for female Holocaust survivors in Sziget under the auspices of Agudat Israel. With great dedication he concerned himself with their physical and spiritual rehabilitation, and even made efforts to marry them off and enable them to make aliya to Israel. After he made aliya, he became one of the heads of Poale Agudat Israel and a founder of the Yesodot cooperative Moshav. After he died in 5737 (1977), the regional office of Nachal Sorek was given his name “Beit Hillel” (see entry on Sziget).

We do not have any information on the professions of the Jews of Ieud during the time of the Hungarian rule that preceded the extermination. At the end of April 1944, the Jews of the village were rounded up and transferred to the Dragomireşti Ghetto, from where they were deported to Auschwitz.

Only a small number of Holocaust survivors returned after the war (in 1947, there were 16). They left the village, with most making aliya to Israel.

Today, there are no Jews in Ieud.

 

Bibliography

Ben-Menachem, Naftali: Regarding Jewish Literature in Hungary, Jerusalem 5718 / 1958, page 290.
Greenwald, Rabbi Moshe: Responsa Arugat Habosem, Orach Chaim, Svalyava 5672 / 1912, paragraph 146.
Arik, Rabbi Meir: Responsa Imre Yosher, Section II, Krakow, 5688 / 1928, paragraph 27.

Magyar-Zsido Okleveltar, Budapest, vol. VII, 1963, pp. 134, 747; vol. XVI, 1976, p. 100.

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