In summer of 1940 Lithuania was annexed to the Soviet Union and became a Soviet Republic. Under the new regulations, the Shadeve factories, owned mostly by Jews, were nationalized. Jewish shops were also nationalized and in many cases the former owners were appointed to manage them. All Zionist parties and youth organizations were disbanded, and the Hebrew school was closed. Supply of goods decreased and, as a result, prices soared. The middle class, mostly Jewish, bore the brunt of this situation and the standard of living dropped gradually.
|A fragment of the oldest Sefer Torah in Lithuania|
In the middle of July an order was issued for all the Jews to lock and leave their homes, after pasting a note on the door with the name of the owner. They were then ordered to gather in the market square. They were allowed to take a small parcel and were told to hand over keys of their homes to the police.
They were then transported, heavily guarded, passing a few stations on the way, and in the middle of the night they arrived at the village Pabarstyciai, about five kilometers from Shadeve. There, they were crowded into two unfinished wooden structures with no water and no light that the Soviets had intended to use as barracks; it had a low barbed wire fence with a guard stationed at it. Twenty-five Jewish youngsters who had worked at nearby farms were brought to this camp as well. They had wounds from blows inflicted by the Lithuanian guards. The only Jewish doctor present at the scene was Dr. Patorsky, who tended the wounded.
The camp inmates were provided with small amounts of food that guards had collected from the deserted Jewish homes.
The day the Jews were taken out of their homes amid death threats, they were forced to hand over money, gold and other valuables in their possession. On August 3, 1941 the Lithuanians took ten more men out of the camp for labor activities. On the way to Radvilishok (Radviliskis) they were shot near lime pits, and their bodies covered with lime. In the middle of August the Lithuanians took twenty-seven Jews out of the camp, including Rabbi Mordehai-David Henkin, and led them to the neighboring village of Kauliskiai where they were shot dead. Thirty-five Jews who worked on the farms at the Raudondvaris estate, a few kilometers away, were also murdered and buried at the same place.
On August 25, 1941 (2nd of Elul, 5701) the last Shadeve Jews were loaded on trucks, and driven to the Liaudiskiai forest, about 10 kilometers to the south-west of Shadeve, where all were shot. According to Soviet sources two mass graves were found containing the bodies of 664 men, women and children. After the murders, the murderers held an all-night drinking feast.
Three families, which included Dr. Patorsky, and the Nul and Kuper families who were fighters in the Lithuanian battles of independence were allowed to remain in the town six further weeks, but were shot later. Only Shulamith, the wife of Nul, managed to survive by hiding at a peasant's farm all the years until the liberation.
Mass grave near the village Pakutenai (one of two massacre sites).
The inscriptions on the tablet are in Yiddish, Hebrew and Lithuanian.
The names of the Lithuanians who robbed and murdered the Jews are recorded at the archives of Yad Vashem in Jerusalem.
After the war monuments were erected at mass graves.
According to the census of 1970 and 1979 one Jew lived in Shadeve. In 1985 not one Jew remained in the town.
The second massacre site near Pakutenai village.
The burial site of the six Jews who managed to escape
from the camp in Pabarstyciai village. In August 1941 all of them
were tortured to death by the Lithuanian Nazi collaborators.
The massacre site in Liaudiskiai forest
The inscriptions in Yiddish, Hebrew and Lithuanian state:
In this place, on August 25, 1941, the Hitlerist murderers and their local collaborators
murdered about 800 Seduva Jews, men, women, children.
Yad Vashem archives, Jerusalem, M-33/975; Koniukhovsky collection 0-71, files 61-64
YIVO, collection of Lithuanian Jewish Communities, files 1207-1211, pages 56688-56835
Lipman M.D., The history of the Jews in Kovno and Slabodka (Hebrew), Pages 25-33
Kamzon Y. D., Yahaduth Lita (Hebrew), pages 95, 100
HaMelitz, St. Petersburg (Hebrew), 28.11.1867; 1.1.1879; 5.8.1879; 31.5.1881; 25.4.1884; 30.6.1884; 21.7.1884; 24.2.1887; 6.3.1887; 13.2.1888; 21.2.1888; 27.6.1888; 15.11.1899; 23.7.1902
Di Yiddishe Shtime, Kovno (Yiddish), 13.11.1931; 17.12.1931; 25.3.1932; 22.6.1932; 1.3.1938; 12.2.1939
Dos Naie Vort, Kovno (Yiddish) 22.7.1934
Folksblat, Kovno (Yiddish) 16.41937; 28.2.1938
Der Yiddisher Kooperator, Kovno (Yiddish) # 8-9, 1929
Dos Vort, Kovno (Yiddish) 13.12.1935
Yiddisher Hantverker, Kovno (Yiddish) # 16, 1939
Kovner Tog (Yiddish) 8.6.1926
Naujienos, Chicago (Lithuanian) 11.6.1949
Augustinas Janulaitis; Zydai Lietuvoje (Jews in Lithuania) (Lithuanian), Kaunas, 1923
A partial list of rabbis who officiated in Shadeve till World War I
Gershon Kremer, cousin of the Rabbi Eliyahu, Gaon from Vilna, served in Shadeve
1831, wrote several books.
Eliezer-Simhah Rabinovitz (1832-1911), was active in public issues.
Noakh Rabinovitz (1832-1902), in Shadeve from 1890, preached for the settlement of Eretz-Yisrael, published several books.
Simhah HaLevi Hurvitz, in Shadeve from 1871.
Yehudah-Leib Rif, from 1886.
Avraham-Aharon Burshtein (1867-1926), in Shadeve 1901-1902.
Yosef Kanovitz, from 1903.
Yosef-Yehudah-Leib Blokh (1849-1930), in Shadeve 1905-1910, moved to Telz where he became the rabbi of the town and the head of the famous Yeshivah.
Yosef Yehudah Leib Blokh
Eliezer Simhah Rabinovitz
A partial list of personages born in Shadeve
Rabbi Mosheh ben Ya'akov-Moshe (HaGolah) (1449-1520), studied in Istanbul, returned to Shadeve in 1495 where he wrote his book Sodoth Shoshan (in the steps of the Rambam), later was Rabbi in Krim, where he died.
Shemuel-Yits'hak Hilman (1868-1953), was Rabbi in Berezino, Glasgow and London. In 1934 emigrated to Eretz-Yisrael where he became headmaster and director of the Yeshivah Or HaYashar in Jerusalem. He published twenty volumes of his book on the Talmud.
Hayim-Mordehai Kotz (1894-1930), was active in the Yavneh movement and in the establishment of the preparatory class of the Telz Yeshivah. In 1940 arrived in America where he together with A.M. Blokh established the Cleveland Yeshivah.
Yisrael Mah-Yafith (Ma Yofis) (1897-1930), authorized rabbi, writer and poet, translated popular poems of Kh. N. Bialik into Yiddish and the allegories of Krilov into Hebrew and Yiddish. For ten years he wrote for the Yiddish newspaper Di Yiddishe Shtime that was published in Kovno. A selection of his writings in Hebrew and Yiddish was published in a book in Tel Aviv in 1970, by Menorah publishers.
List of 57 Sheduva Jews, donors for the Settlement of Eretz-Yisrael, as published in
(from JewishGen>Databases>Lithuania>Hamelitz by Jeffrey Maynard)
|AMALS||Tanchum||in Johannesburg, SA||#2||1897|
|FRIDLANDER||Yehoshua ben Yehuda Leib||born 1896/7||#10||1897|
|FRIDLANDER||Yehuda Leib father of Yehoshua||#10||1897|
|GUTMAN||Asher||returned from Africa||#35||1900|
|KARL||Kalman grandfather of baby boy||from Riga||#10||1897|
|KRIGER||Osher husband of Bertha Yossel||wed||#56||1899|
|RABINOWITZ||Bebe bas Noach wife of Ephraim Nisan
|wed 13 Elul||#204||1893|
|RABINOWITZ||Noach father of Bebe||Rabbi Gaon||#204||1893|
|SHEIN||Leib||returned from Africa||#35||1900|
|YOSSEL||Bertha wife of Osher Kriger||wed||#56||1899|
List of 128 Shadeve Jews, donors for the victims of the great famine in Persia in
1871-72 as published in HaMagid
(from JewishGen>Databases>Lithuania>HaMagid, by Jeffrey Maynard)
|ABRAHAM||Yakov ben Yeshi||#9||1872|
|ABRAHAM||Yeshei father of Yakov||#9||1872|
|BERMAN||Avraham||father of Tzvi||#25||1871|
|BERMAN||Tzvi ben Avraham||#25||1871|
|HOROWITZ||Yosef ben Simcha Halevy||#9||1872|
|LEVI||Kalman ben Shimon||#9||1872|
|MER||Chaim ben Eli||#9||1872|
|MER||Chaim ben Eli||#25||1871|
|MER||Eli||father of Chaim||#9||1872|
|MER||Eli||father of Chaim||#25||1871|
|SEGAL||Yosef ben Yona||#9||1872|
|SHLAPEBERSKI||Baruch ben D||#9||1872|
|YENTES||Shmuel||son in law of Shmuel ben Tzvi||#9||1872|
|Abba ben Moshe||#9||1872|
|Avraham ben Kalman||#9||1872|
|Avraham Yitzchok ben Nechamiah||#9||1872|
|Bena ben Shmuel||#9||1872|
|Bentzion||son in law of Shraga||#9||1872|
|Bentzion ben Tzvi||#9||1872|
|Dov||son in law of Avraham Mershan||#9||1872|
|Dov ben Moshe||#9||1872|
|Eizik ben Eliezer||#9||1872|
|Eizik ben Moshe||#9||1872|
|Elazar ben Eliezer||#9||1872|
|Eli ben Boruch||#9||1872|
|Ephraim ben Leib||#9||1872|
|Heshil ben Micha||#9||1872|
|Leib ben rabbi A||#9||1872|
|Leib ben rabbi D||#9||1872|
|Leib ben Yakov||#9||1872|
|Leib Yakov ben A||#9||1872|
|Meir||Eliezer son in law of Avraham Yona||#9||1872|
|Meir||son in law of Shraga Yakov||#9||1872|
|Mordechai ben Moshe||#9||1872|
|Moshe ben Shmuel||#9||1872|
|Nechamiah ben D||#9||1872|
|Nechamiah ben Moshe||#9||1872|
|Noson Note ben Rabbi M||#25||1871|
|Pesach ben Eizik||#9||1872|
|Pesach ben Ephraim Meir||#9||1872|
|Reuven ben Shmuel||#9||1872|
|Rivka bas Eli||#9||1872|
|Shmuel ben Dovid||#9||1872|
|Shmuel ben Moshe||#9||1872|
|Shmuel ben Tzvi||#9||1872|
|Shraga ben Dov||#9||1872|
|Shraga ben Manish||#9||1872|
|Shraga Yakov ben Dovid||#9||1872|
|Yakov||son in law of Menachem Man||#9||1872|
|Yakov||Rabbi Gaon Mtz ABD||#25||1871|
|Yakov ben Alexander||#9||1872|
|Yakov ben Avraham||#9||1872|
|Yakov ben Avraham||#25||1871|
|Yakov ben Ephraim||#9||1872|
|Yakov ben Tzvi||#9||1872|
|Yakov ben Leib||#9||1872|
|Yehiyahu ben Yehuda||#25||1871|
|Yeshei ben Binyamin||#9||1872|
|Yochanason||son in law of Abba||#9||1872|
|Yona ben Yechiel||#9||1872|
|Yosef||son in law of Avraham Berman||#25||1871|
|Zev ben Ari||#9||1872|
|Zev ben Eliahu||#9||1872|
The above article is an excerpt from Protecting Our Litvak Heritage by Josef Rosin. The book contains this article along with many others, plus an extensive description of the Litvak Jewish community in Lithuania that provides an excellent context to understand the above article. Click here to see where to obtain the book.
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