Memorial Book of Krzemieniec
(Kremenetsí, Ukraine)

50°06' / 25°43'

Translation of
Pinkas Kremenits; Sefer Zikaron

Edited by: Abraham Samuel Stein

Published in Tel Aviv, 1954


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Acknowledgments

Project Coordinator

Ronald D. Doctor

 


This is a translation from: Pinkas Kremenits; Sefer Zikaron
Memorial Book of Krzemieniec,
Editor: Abraham Samuel Stein, Tel Aviv 1954

Note: The original book can be seen online at the NY Public Library site: Krzemieniec (1954)


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Translation Project Coordinator's Note Ronald D. Doctor  
Translation Acknowledgments Ronald D. Doctor  
Dedication    
Table of Figures    
 
Contents
 
[Title Page]   i
[Copyright page]   iii
 
Part One [Hebrew]
 
Contents   3
Within the Book The Editors 7
 
History of Jewish Settlement in Kremenets Sh. Etinger and Ch. Shmeruk  
 
A. The Town of Kremenets and Early Jewish Settlement   9
B. The Prosperous Era   11
C. The Decrees of 1648 and 1649   17
D. The Era of Consolidation   20
E. Internal Life (From 1648 to the Second Partition of Poland)   26
F. Kremenets under Russian Dominion (1793–1917)   30
G. Between Hasidism and Enlightenment: Love of Zion   34
Addenda    
Addendum 1: Announcement of the Kremenets City Secretary on the Destruction of the City's Defenses by the Cossacks in 1648   37
Translation of the Announcement   39
Addendum 2: The Trial for Blood Libel in Kremenets   40
Translation of the Document “From the Kremenets Castle Books of April 16, 1753”   42
Addendum 3: The Magid of Kremenets, R' Yakov Yisrael Son of Tsvi HaLevi   43
Addendum 4: The Troubles of the “Unregistered” in Kremenets   45
Endnotes [Translation Editor's Note: The numbered footnotes in the Yizkor Book section appear as endnotes in this translation.]  
 
Chapters in the History of Kremenets Jewry
 
Changing Eras Manus Goldenberg 46
      The Landscape   46
      RYB”L and His Era   47
      In the Early 20th Century   50
      During World War I   51
      During the Revolution and the Civil War   51
      Under Polish Rule   52
      During World War II   53
Before World War I Yitschak Rokhel 54
      A View of the City and Its Surroundings   54
      Economic Life   55
      Public Life   55
      Volunteerism and Civic Activists   56
      The Story of the Dispute   56
      Torah and Fear of God   58
      Relations between Peoples   58
      Status of the Zionist Movement   59
      Education   60
How Kremenets Was Saved from the Riots Akiva Ziger 60
Help for Refugees during World War I Menachem Goldgart 61
At the Beginning of the Revolution Motye Kornits 63
During the Changes of 1917–1920 Azriel Goren 65
Twenty-one Months under Soviet Rule Ayzik Hofman 66
Courageous Spirit General Yosef Avidar 69
 
R' Yitschak Ber Levinzon (the RYB”L)
 
RYB”L: His Life and Personality A. Ben-Or (Orinovski) 71
      RYB”L's Books   74
      Testimony for Israel   74
      Tribe of Judah   76
RYB”L among Children L. Rozental 76
On the Value of Crafts and Agriculture RYB”L 77
A Student Traveling to His Teacher Yochanen Tverski 78
 
Public Life
 
The Kremenets Community under Polish Rule Munye Katz 82
The Jews in the Town Zev Shumski 84
Synagogues and Study Halls A. Gluzman 87
Eighteen Synagogues Yonatan Kucher 92
The Economic Situation between the Two World Wars Leon Hokhberg & Zev Shumski 92
The Jewish Banks Moshe Shnayder 95
TOZ Branch – Health Care Organization Y. Portnoy 97
The Jewish Workers' Struggle Netanel Kagan 97
Jewish Sports Chayim Taytsher 100
Institutions and Organizations   105
 
Zionism, Pioneering, Immigration
 
The Evolution of the “Organization” Yisrael Biberman 107
The Pioneer Movement Yisrael Otiker 112
The First Group of Pioneers Chanokh Rokhel & Yitschak Biberman 115
The Second Wave of Pioneers (1921–1925) A. Yosef 119
Young Pioneer and Pioneer (1923–1934) Arye Shochet, Tsvi Zeira, & Sore Bat 122
Verba – A Spark of Klosova M. Blizhovski 125
The Kibbutz in Verba Sh. Zaromov 125
The Youth Guard Movement Ayzik Hofman 127
Academic Pioneer Sh. Titelman 130
 
Education and Culture
 
Masters and Rabbis Tovye Troshinski 131
Jewish Primary School Motye Kornits 134
School of Commerce Moshe Shnayder 135
How a Hebrew Shelter for the Needy Was Erected Overnight Pesach Litvak 136
Tarbut School Yehuda Kenif 137
The Hebrew Corner Yisrael Otiker 143
The ORT School Munye Katz 144
The Kremenets Newspaper Yisrael Otiker 146
 
Memories and Lifestyles
 
Kremenets – Election Headquarters Avraham Levinson 151
In the City of RYB”L Rachel Amari (Faygenberg) 154
The Golden Key of Kremenets Jewry Rachel Amari 156
Names and Nicknames K. L. 158
The Heroes of the Village of Folvarki Sore Bat 160
Construction Style Zev Shumski 161
Alterman's Courtyard Manus Goldenberg 165
 
Characters and Personalities
 
Rabbis & Slaughterers Yonatan Kucher 179
Teachers & Cheders Zev Kligman & Bunya Shniftman 182
Water Carriers & Porters Akiva Ziger 183
Two out of Thousands Mordekhay Otiker 184
Images (Members of the Youth Guard) Rachel Otiker-Nadir 187
Tsvi Prilutski (1862–1942) Yosef Heftman 189
Excerpts from Tsvi Prilutski's Letter Tsvi Prilutski 191
Dr. Tovye Hindes (1852–1920) Avraham Zamir 193
Dr. Binyamin Landsberg (1890–1942) Tovye Troshinski 195
Moshe Eydelman (1864–1942) Yitschak Rokhel 197
Duvid Goldenberg (1880–1934) Manus Goldenberg 199
R' Ben-Tsion Hofman Ayzik Hofman 200
R' Meshulam Katz (1850–1908) Moshe Katz 200
Boris Liakh Manus Goldenberg 201
Yisrael Margalit (1865–1942) Zev Shumski 203
Shlome Fingerut (1888–1942) Yisrael Otiker 203
Arye Feldman (1900–1942) Yisrael Otiker 204
Avigdor (Zeydi) Perlmuter (1876–1942) Ayzik Hofman 205
Moshe Frenkel (1902–1944)   206
R' Getsi Klorfayn (1872–1942) Leye Klorfayn 206
Hadasah Rubin Yisrael Otiker 207
R' Tsvi Menachem Rokhel (1835–1922) K. L. 208
Mikhael Shumski (1857–1928) Yitschak Rokhel 210
Dr. Zalman Sheynberg Sonye Radzinovits Aksel 212
Meir Samsons (Meir Bernshteyn) Yisrael Otiker 213
 
Kremenets Exiles in Israel
 
Kremenetsers' Role in Building the Land Yitschak Rokhel 214
General Yosef Avidar (Rokhel) Dr. Duvid Lazar 219
Eliezer Dubkirer Manus Goldenberg 223
The Two Who Fell in Yagur (Hinde Fishman, Shmuel Dishel) Ester Fidel 224
Yisrael Goldenberg Manus Goldenberg 226
Shmuel Koyler Mordekhay Otiker 227
The Spirit of Two Fighters (Sunye Keselman, Avraham Margalit) Moshe Krementsutski 228
Shprintse Rokhel A. Yosef 229
 
The Destruction of Kremenets
 
Burning Embers … Manus Goldenberg 231
The Holocaust Betsalel Shvarts 234
The Story of the Extermination Tova Teper Kaplan 251
Desecrated Parchment Tovye Troshinski 264
Heads of the Judenrat in Kremenets Ayzik Hofman 268
He Did Not Succeed Yisrael Otiker 269
My Heart, My Heart Aches for Your Fallen Duvid Shukhman 269
Notes The Editors 270
 
Supplement
 
This Is How I Saw You, My Town Miryam Bat 271
 
Part Two [Yiddish]
 
Title Page   274
Contents   275
Introduction The Editors 277
History of Jewish Settlement in Kremenets Sh. Etinger and Ch. Shmeruk 281
 
R' Yitschak Ber Levinzon (RYB”L, 1788–1860)
 
Fighter for the Enlightenment Volf Shnayder 288
Restoring R' Yitschak Ber Levinzon's Home Yisrael Margalit 299
 
Between the Two World Wars
 
Jewish Kremenets Yisrael Otiker 301
The Community Budget Kremenitser Shtime 308
The Great Synagogue H. Gilernt 311
The Orphanage Bela Bernshteyn 314
The Circle of Independent Orphans L. Eler 320
A Working City B. Barshap 321
The Tailor S. Fingerut 322
The Porter Hadasah Rubin 323
The ORT School Kremenitser Shtime 324
Jewish Theater Life Kremenitser Shtime 326
The Charity Fund Kremenitser Shtime 327
Ledger of the “Free Loan” Charity Fund M. Gershteyn 328
The “Other” Kremenets Kremenitser Shtime 333
 
The Jewish Workers' Movement
 
The Professional Movement Manus Goldenberg 335
The Bund Tovye Troshinski 340
The Communist Movement in Kremenets Manus Goldenberg 344
 
Personalities
 
Tsvi Prilutski   353
Mikhel Barshap   354
Volf Gornfeld   355
M. B. Goldfarb Kremenitser Shtime 355
Meir Goldring   356
Avraham Yakov Vaynberg   357
Chaykel of Kremenets Yitschak Vakman 357
Eli Chaykel's (Bernshteyn) Manus Goldenberg 358
Dr. Arye Landsberg   359
Dr. Meir Litvak   360
Rabbi Shraga-Arye Marder M. Sambirer 363
Shimon Chayim Moliar (Karsh) Yitschak Vakman 363
Mendel Karsh Manus Goldenberg 364
Rabbi Yechiel Yitschak Rapaport K. R. 366
 
Remembrances and Customs
 
The Anski “Expedition” in Kremenets Chanokh Gilernt 367
How We Once Disseminated Jewish Literature Duvid Roykhel 376
The Funeral of a Torah Scroll Chanokh Gilernt 378
Market Day in the Dubno Suburb Moshe Shnayder 380
On Old Customs Chanokh Gilernt 381
Purim (Memories of My Childhood Years) L. Rozental 388
What Happened Kremenitser Shtime 389
My First Day in Cheder Esther Laybel-Rubinshteyn 392
Old Kremenets (Leafing through the “All Kremenets” Album) Moshe Suravski 393
Two Poems Hadasah Rubin 398
Kremenets Nicknames Heynekh Kesler 400
Kremenets Characters Motye Kornits 401
Yidel Shuster (Shoemaker)   401
Chayim Gershon Shnayder (Tailor)   401
Mordekhay Shnayder   402
Vizale   402
Yankel Vasertreger (Water Carrier)   402
Moshe Hipsh (Nice)   402
Shalom Peyke (Pipe)   403
Hinde di Groyse (Big) and Hinde di Kleyne (Little)   403
Hirsh Klezmer   403
Moshe Tate (Father)   403
Ayzik Shlisele (Middleman)   404
Leybenov Atiets (Priest)   404
Malke de Lange (Long)   404
Babtsye fun der Fish (from the Fish) and Babtsye fun der Puter (from the Butter)   404
Rachel fun der Genz (from the Geese)   404
Perl Chicory   405
R' Shlome Koval (the Blacksmith) Yitschak Vakman 405
Documents   407
 
Destruction and Holocaust
 
A Shtetl by the Potik, Destroyed and Desolate … (a Poem) Manus Goldenberg 413
Ghetto Martyrology and The Destruction of Kremenets Betsalel Shvarts 416
The Final Chapter Eliezer Barshap, Netanel (Sanya) Kagan 438
With Refugees in Italy Yitschak Vakman 439
To You … (Poem) Tovye Troshinski 440
 
Kremenets in the World
 
40 Years of the Kremenets Landsmanschaft in New York Yitschak Vakman 441
A Word on Chaye Rapoport Duvid Rapoport 446
Kremenetsers in Argentina Yehuda Koyfman 447
My Town Kremenets Helene Vaynberg 450
 
Supplements
 
S1. The “Holocaust” of the Jews from Krzemieniec in 1942 Jerzy Strumiński  
S2. New York Kremenetser Incorporation & Related Documents Ronald D. Doctor  
S3. Death Notice for Galina Sorochinski Submitted by Anna Brune  

 

A Bibliography of Kremenets Yizkor Books

[Translation Editor's Note: This Bibliography includes citations for Yizkor Books for Kremenets and nearby associated towns (Brody, Pochayev, Shumsk, Vishnevets, and Yampol) as well as 18 booklets published by the Organization of Kremenets Emigrants between 1967 and 1982. Some of these include material on Shumsk and Vyshgorodok.]

Name Index

Town Locator

[Translation Editor's Note: The translation of Pinkas Kremenets uses the English names of well-known cities and towns (e.g., Haifa, Jerusalem, Moscow, New York, Petersburg, Warsaw). Names of other European cities and towns are transliterated as they appear in Pinkas Kremenets. This locator shows those transliterations, likely standard names in the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN) as of January 2010 (see http://earth-info.nga.mil/gns/html/bgn.htm), and the likely location and distance from Kremenets.]


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