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[Page 329]

Bibliography

Transliterated by Irene Newhouse & Dr. Leonid Smilovitsky

Archives

Encyclopedias

Documents and Material

Belarus in the time of war

On the Eve of the Holocaust

Belarussian Ghettos

Minsk Ghetto

Genocidal Actions

Contacts and mutual relations between Jews and non-Jews

Jewish Resistance

Rescue of Jews

Historiography of the Holocaust


[Page 339]

The Series “Pamyat'” [Memory]

Historical-documentary chronicle Belarussian cities and regions

Transcribed by Irene Newhouse & Dr. Leonid Smilovitsky

Berezino District (Minsk, 1987).
Beshenkovichi District (1991).
Bobriusk (1995).
Borisov (1008).
Brest (1997).
Bykhov District (1989).
Vetka District (1989).
Volozhin District (1996).
Glubokoe District (1995)
Gomel District (1998).
Gorki District (1996).
Grodno District (1993).
Drogochin District (1997).
Dubrovski District Kn. 1-2 (1998).
Dyatlovo District (1997).
Zhitovichi District (1994).
Ivatsevichi District (1997).
Kamenets District (1997).
Kirov District (1997).
Klimovichi District (1995).
Klichev District (1995).
Krugloe District (1996).
Liozno District (1992).
Luninets District (1995).
Lyuban District (1996).
Lyakhovichi District (1989).
Mogilev District (1996).
Mozyr District (1997).
Myadel District (1998).
Narovlia District (1996).
Novogrudok District (1996).
Oktyabr District (1997).
Petrikov District (1995).
Pruzhany District (1992).
Rossony District (1994).
Rogachev District (1994).
Tolochin District (1988).
Khoiniki District (1988).
Chashniki District (1997).
Cherikov District (1994).


[Page 340]

Books and Articles in Hebrew

Translated by Judith Springer

Kahanovits, Yehuda Leyb Gershon. Homel, ir ve'em be-Yisrael [Homel, Mother City in Israel], 1942, Jerusalem. Publisher: [s.n.], 1948.

Simyon (Shamen), Moshe (editor). Sefer zikaron le-kehilat Horodok al yad Bialystok [Memorial Book of the Community of Horodok near Bialystok], Tel Aviv, 1963.

Leoni, Eliezer (editor). Volozhin: sifra shel ha-ir ve-shel yeshivat “Etz Chaim” [Volozhyn: Book of the City and of the “Ets Chayim” (Tree of Life) Yeshiva], Tel Aviv, 1970.

Lashovits, Katriel (editor). Volkovisk: sipura shel kehila tsiyonit-yehudit. Hushmeda be-shoa [Volkovysk: The Story of a Jewish Zionist Community. Destroyed during the Holocaust, 1941-1943], Tel Aviv. Publisher: [s.n.], 1988.

Rabin, Haim (editor). Voronova: sefer zikaron le-kedoshey Voronova she-nispu be-shoa ha-natsit be-shnat 1941-1944 [Memorial Book of the Martyrs of Voronovo Who Perished during the Nazi Holocaust in the Years 1941-1943], Tel Aviv, 1971.

Karu (editor). Vitebsk, Tel Aviv, 1957.

Shvaitser, Yisrael (editor). Pinkas Shtskotsin: Shtshekatshiner yizkor buch [Shtskotsin Journal: Memorial Book of Szczekociny], Tel Aviv, 1959.

Shvarts, Betsalel (editor). Sefer Kobrin: megilat chayim ve-churban [Book of Kobrin: The Scroll of Life and Destruction], 1951.

Pinsk: sefer eydut ve-zikaron le-kehilat Pinsk-Karlin [Pinsk: Testimony and Memorial Book of the Community of Pinsk-Karlin], Tel Aviv, Organization of Former Residents of Pinsk-Karlin in the State of Israel, 1973-1977.

Lichtenstein, Kalman. Pinkas Slonim: (divrey yemey Slonim, dyokna shel ir, hashmadat ha-kehila, dapey hantsacha) [Memorial Book of Slonim: History of Slonim, Portrait of the City, Destruction of the Community, Commemoration Pages], Tel Aviv, 1962-1979.
Nachmani, Shimshon (editor). Pinkas Slutsk u-benotea [Memorial Book of Slutsk and Its Vicinity], New York, 1962.

Gordon, Aba (editor). Smorgon, mechoz Vilna: sefer eydut ve-zikaron [Smorgon, Vilna District: Testimony and Memorial Book], Tel Aviv, 1965.

Ayarateynu Glibok, chayeya ve-churbana [Our Village Glubokoye, Its Life and Destruction], Tel Aviv, Organization of Former Residents of Glubokoye, 1967.

Yafe, Yehoshua. Be-geto Novogrudok ube-tenua ha-partizanit: halechima ha-partizanit be-misgeret ha-gedud shel ha-achim Bielski [In the Novogrudok Ghetto and the Partisan Movement: The Partisan Struggle within the Framework of the Battalion of the Bielski Brothers], Tel Aviv, Organization of Former Residents of Novogrudok in Israel, 1988.

Rubin, Ch. (editor). Kehilat Svislots, pelekh grodna: yizkor le-kehilat svislots [The Community of Swislocz, Grodno District: Memorial to the Community of Swislocz], Tel Aviv, 1961.

Swironi (Druts), Chanokh (editor). Ayarateynu Svir [Our Village Swir], Tel Aviv. 1959.

Even-Shoshan, Shlome (editor). Minsk, ir ve-em: korot, ma'asim, ishim, havay [Minsk, Mother City: History, Events, Personalities, and Way of Life], Tel Aviv, 1975-1985.

Blumental, Nachman (editor). Sefer Mir [Book of Mir], Association of Former Residents of Mir, Jerusalem, Encyclopedia of the Diaspora, 1962.

Tamari, Moshe (editor). Kehilat Lenin: sefer zikaron [The Community of Lenin: Memorial Book], Tel Aviv, 1957.

Yudelevits, Yosef. Lida iri shel shacharit yemey alumay: zikhronot ha-shemurim be-libi [Lida, the City of my Youth: Memories Kept in my Heart], Kfar Saba, “Magen” Printing Press, 1964.

Manor, Aleksander (editor). Sefer Lida [Book of Lida], Tel Aviv, 1970.

Rubin, Yisrael (editor). Lachovits: sefer zikaron [Lyakhovichi: Memorial Book], Tel Aviv, 1949.

Rishonim le-mered –- Lachva [First To Revolt – Lakhva], Jerusalem, Encyclopedia of the Diaspora, 1957.

Farber, Kalman (editor). Sefer zikaron kehilat Vileyka ha-mechozit pelekh Vilna [Memorial Book of the Community of Vileyka, Vileyka Uyezd, Vilna Guberniya], Tel Aviv, 1972.

Kaganovits, Moshe (editor). Sefer zikaron le-kehilat Ivye [Memorial Book of the Iv'ye Community], Tel Aviv, Organizations of Former Residents of Iv'ye in Israel and America, 1968.

Kopelovits, Arye (editor). Sefer Ilya: yizkor bukh [Book of Il'ya, Memorial Book], Tel Aviv, 1962.

Losh, L. (editor). Pinkas Belitsa (Belitse) [Book of Belitsa (Belitse)], Tel Aviv, 1968.

Shtokfish, David (editor). Sefer yizkor Dokshits-Parafyanov: andreta le-zekher shtey kehilot yehudiyot [Memorial Book of Dokshitsy-Paraf'yanovo: Monument to the Memory of Two Jewish Communities], Tel Aviv, 1970.

Krust, Yosef (editor). Esh tamid –- yizkor le-Dolhinov: Sefer zikaron le-kehilat Dolhinov ve-haseviva [Eternal Flame –- Memorial to Dolhinov: Memorial Book of the Community of Dolhinov and Surroundings], Tel Aviv, 1985.

Stein, Avraham (editor). Pinkas Kletsk [Book of Kletsk], Tel Aviv, 1959.

Neustadt, Mordekhay (editor). Sefer Druya ve-kehilot Miyor, Druysk, ve-Lionpol [Book of Druya and the Communities of Miory, Druysk, and Leonpol'], Ramat Gan, 1973.

Piesk ve-Most: sefer yizkor [Piesk and Most: Memorial Book], Organization of Former Residents of Piesk and Most in Israel and the Diaspora, Tel Aviv, 1975.

Losh, L. (editor). Sefer zikaron le-kehilot Shtsutsin, Vasilishki, Ostrin, Novidvor, Rozanka [Memorial Book of the Communities of Shchuchyn, Vasilishki, Ostryna, Novyy Dvor, Rozhanka], Tel Aviv, 1966.

Meirovits, Aharon (editor). Sefer Zeludok ve-Orlova, galed le-zikaron [Book of Zheludok and Orlova, a Living Memorial], Tel Aviv, 1967.

Bender, Sara. Mul mavet orev: yehudey Byalistok be-milchemet ha-olam ha-sheniya 1939-1943 [In the Face of Lurking Death: The Jews of Bialystok in World War II 1939-1943], Tel Aviv, Am Oved, 1997.

Greenstein, Yakov. Or mi-kikar ha-yovel: reshimot partizan mi-geto Minsk [Light from the Jubilee Square: Notes of Partisans from the Minsk Ghetto], Tel Aviv, Hakibbutz Hameuchad, Ghetto Fighters' House, 1968.

Trunk, Yeshaye. Yudenrat: ha-moetsot ha-yehudiyot be-mizrach eyropa be-tekufat ha-kibush ha-hanatsi [Judenrat: Jewish Councils in Eastern Europe during the Period of Nazi Occupation], Yad Vashem, 1979.

Levin, Dov. Tekufa be-sograyim, 1939-1941: temurot be-chayey ha-yehudim be-ezorim she-supchu le-brit ha-moetsot be-techilat milchemet ha-olam ha-sheniya [The Lesser of Two Evils, 1939-1941: Changes in the Life of Jews in Regions Annexed to the Soviet Union at the Beginning of World War II], Jerusalem, Hebrew University, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, 1989.

Litvak, Yosef. Pelitim yehudim mi-polin be-brit ha-moetsot, 1939-1946 [Jewish Refugees from Poland in the Soviet Union, 1939-1946], Jerusalem, Hebrew University, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, 1988.

Smolar, Hersh. Heykhan ata chaver Sidorov [Where Are You, Comrade Sidorov?], Tel Aviv, Am Oved, 1973.

Farfel, David. Be-geto Nisviz ube-ya'arot Naliboki [In the Nesvizh Ghetto and Naliboki Forests], Ramat Gan, “Shamgar 86” Printing Press, 1995.

Kaganovich, Moshe. Di milchome fun di yidishe partizaner in mizroch-eyrope [The War of the Jewish Partisans in Eastern Europe), Buenos Aires, Central Association of Polish Jews in Argentina, 1956.

Yakov Tsur. Machane hashmada Mali Trostinets (The Maly Trostinets Extermination Camp], Yalkut Moreshet, April 1995, No. 59, pp. 31-52.

Yehoshue Bikhler, Yechidot shitur mekomiyot –- Schutzmannschaften –- be-shtachim ha-kevushim shel brit ha-moetsot [Local Police Units – Schutzmannschaften – in the Occupied Territories of the Soviet Union], Yalkut Moreshet, October 1999, No. 68. pp. 69-84.

Cholawski, Shalom. Ha-machteret ha-yehudit be-Byelorusya be-yemey ha-shoa [Jewish Underground in Belorussia during the Holocaust]. Place: [s.l.], 1978.

Cholawski, Shalom. Al naharot ha-Nyeman veha-Dneper: yehudey Byelorusya ha-ma'aravit be-milchemet ha-olam ha-sheniya [On the Rivers of the Neman and the Dnieper: The Jews of Western Belorussia during World War II], Tel Aviv. Moreshet, 1982.

Cholawski, Shalom. Ha-tenua ha-partizanit ha-yehudit [Jewish Partisan Movement], Jerusalem, Merkaz ha-hasbara, sherut ha-pirsumim, 1983.

Cholawski, Shalom. Ha-shoa veha-lechima be-Byelorusya, be-historiografya ha-Sovyetit ube-sifrut ha-emigratsiya ha-Byelorusit [The Holocaust and the Armed Struggle in Belorussia as Reflected in Soviet Historiography and in Belorussian Émigré Literature], Tel Aviv, Moreshet, 1984.

Cholawski, Shalom. Ha-shoa ve-halechima be-Byelorusya be-sifrut ha-sovyetit ube-chugey ha-me'agrim be-ma'arav [The Holocaust and the Armed Struggle in Belorussia as Reflected in Soviet Literature and Among Émigré Circles in the West], Jerusalem, Yad Vashem, 1987.

Cholawski, Shalom. Be-sufat ha-kilayon: yahdut Byelorusya ha-mizrachit be-milchemet ha-olam ha-sheniya [In the Storm of Destruction: The Jewry of Eastern Belorussia during World War II], Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew University, 1988.

Cholawski, Shalom. Partizanim ve-lochamey ha-getaot – gorem pail be-kerev sherit ha-pleyta [Partisans and Ghetto Fighters – an Active Element among the Surviving Remnants], Jerusalem, Yad Vashem, 1991.

Memorial (yizkor) books of towns and shtetls in Belorussia during the Holocaust

Baranovits: Sefer zikaron [Baranovichi: Memorial Book], Tel Aviv, Organization of Former Residents of Baranovichi in Israel, 1953.

Bobruysk: Sefer zikaron le-kehilat Bobruysk u-benotea [Memorial Book of the Community of Bobruysk and Its Vicinity], Tel Aviv, “Tarbut ve-chinukh,” 1967.

Steinman, Eliezer (editor). Brisk de-Lita [Brest-Litovsk], Jerusalem, Encyclopedia of the Diaspora, 1954.

Rabin, Dov. Grodna-Gradne [Grodno], Encyclopedia of the Diaspora, 1973.

Beilin, Aharon (editor). Disna: sefer zikaron le-kehila [Disna: Memorial Book of the Community], Tel Aviv, 1969.

Varshavski, Dov B. (editor). Drahitshin [Drogichin], 1958.

Shtokfish, David (editor). Sefer Rubizevits, Derevna, veha-seviva [Book of Rubezhevichi, Derevna, and Surroundings], Tel Aviv, 1968.

Raban, Yechezkel (editor). Sefer Deretsin [Book of Derechin], 1972.


[Page 342]

Demographic and social composition of the
Jewish population in the Soviet Union up to 1941

Translated by Irene Newhouse and Dr. Leonid Smilovitsky

From the beginning of the Soviet-German War in the European parts of the country to 1941, about five million Jews were annihilated, and in the Asian part of the nation, about 500,000 Jews were killed. Jews murdered numbered 2,994,684 in Ukraine, 446,484 in Belarusia excluding Bialystok, and in Bialystok 400,000. In the territories occupied by the German military from October-November 1941, there were 88 million Soviet citizens. In the new regions which were annexed by the Soviet Union in 1939-40 (Western Ukraine, Western Belarusia, Bessarabia, Bukovina, the Baltic countries) there were 23 million people. In these, the Jewish population was:

Name of Republic Jewish population
Lithuania 155,000
Latvia 95,000
Estonia 5,000
Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia 278,000
Western Belarusia and Ukraine 1,030,000
Regions of The Russian Federation, occupied by German forces 25,000

The distribution of occupations among Jews in European countries was as follows:

Rural managers 9.1%
Urban workers 14.8%
Mercantile employees 20%
Government employees (civil service) 23.4%
Self-employed and professionals (doctors, reporters, theater, etc.) 32.7%

From the Minutes of the Wannsee Conference, held January 20, 1942 in Berlin

From: SS v deistvii. Dokumenty o Prestupleniyakh SS (Moscow, 1960), p 150.


[Page 343]

From an order of Field Marshal General Walter von Reichenau,
Commander of the 6th Army;
“On the behavior of troops in the East.”

The full German text of this order can be found at http://www.hnet.org/~german/gtext/nazi/reichanu-germ.html

Translation of the parts from the German original by Irene Newhouse

The main goal of the campaign against the Jewish-Bolshevist system is absolute destruction of its tools of power and eradication of Asiatic influence in European culture. From this derives tasks for the troops which go beyond traditional soldiery's understanding. The soldier in the East is not only a warrior according to military rules, but a carrier of the unrelenting Folk Idea, and avenger of the atrocities committed on the German and related peoples.

Therefore the soldier must have an understanding for the necessity of hard but justifiable atonement on the part of Jewish sub-humans. There is a second goal, the suppression of uprisings behind the German front, which, experience has shown, are invariably instigated by Jews. The battle against the enemy behind the front is not yet taken sufficiently seriously. To this date, treacherous, horrible partisans and degenerate women are still being made prisoners of war, half-uniformed or civilian-dressed hedge snipers and loiters are still treated like decent soldiers and taken to prisoner of war camps. Yes, captured Russian officers state, laughing scornfully, that Soviet agents move about without restriction and often eat in German field kitchens. Such conduct can only be explained as total thoughtlessness. It is the duty of the officers to reawaken the sense for the present war.

Completely independently of any political considerations of the future, the soldier has two tasks to fulfill:

  1. Total eradication of the erroneous Bolshevist doctrine, the Soviet state, and its army.
  2. Relentless eradication of alien treachery and atrocity, and thereby securing the life of the German army in Russia.

This is the only way in which we can execute our manifest destiny of ridding the German people of the Asiatic-Jewish menace for all time.


[Page 344]

Letter of Panteleimon Ponomarenko,
the first Secretary of the Central Committee
of the Communist Party of Belorussia, to Josef Stalin

Translated by Irene Newhouse and Dr. Leonid Smilovitsky

Secretary Central Committee of the Communist Party of Belorussia
Member of the Military Soviet of the Western Front Panteleimon Ponomarenko
(not later than 12 July 12, 1941)
Top secret

On the Situation in Belarus

Of 100 districts in Belarus, as per old boundaries, 51 districts are in our hands and in areas of the interior 20 districts are under Nazi control, such that the enemy passes through cities and the front at will - infantry movements are not secure.

The mood among Belorussians is exceptionally patriotic and militant. Livestock from collective farms is driven behind the front as soon as orders to do so are proclaimed. Incidents of opposite motion don't occur. As of now, over 350 thousand head of cattle (have been driven) across the Dniepr and Dvina (Rivers)... Until defensive forces for the Dniepr line can be brought up, there are only women, the elderly, and children. All in all, there are around 150,000 people involved. Employees on collective farms, implore us to give them arms; please appropriate everything (needed) for the army... The supply of arms is very insufficient, the military authorities do not like to offer anything (weaponry); the little that does come is for reserve regiments. The collective farmers obtain arms, killing Germans and collecting weaponry that remains on the field s of the battles. I think that it might be possible to collect 10-15 thousand rifles from those captured, abandoned, etc.

Experience has shown that the presence of a resistance organization of 200-300 men in a district is sufficient to initiate partisan activity in that district... In each region captured by Germans, partisan units have been organized. In all, there are over three thousand men. Furthermore, underground cells are growing tenfold in other respects. 100 units sprang up overnight. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Belarus organizes 200-300 men in the occupied districts every day, including resistance organization, orientation and leadership. Information concerning outstanding, effective partisan activity is being received all the time...

In occupied districts, the Germans endeavor to humor the peasants. Newcomers to villages, soldiers and officers, greet the peasants most respectfully, distribute chocolate to the children, women everywhere yield to two to three meters of chintz, that primary symbol of pre-revolutionary affluence. Verbal declarations and extracts of pamphlets follow:

  1. The property of those who hide and evade work will be confiscated.
  2. The hard-earned wages of working men and staff will not be subject to significant deductions
  3. The number of volunteers is not sufficient (bear in mind the results of compulsory “loans”) (note: the Communist regime, when faced with a shortage of funds for a high-priority project, was in the habit of levying special, immensely unpopular, taxes which they called “loans”)
  4. Stahkanovist* press will be prohibited.
  5. Christians and Moslems will be given religious freedom.

All their agitation, verbal and written, states that the battle is against Jews and Communists, which are made synonymous. In Cherven, the Germans gathered Belorussians for indoctrination; sometimes, if they sense hostility, they execute the crowd with machine guns. The population is deserting the cities. The Germans also single out the village elders and ask, “What authority do you wish?” One elder replied, “In that case, we'd like to be left alone”.

In conclusion, one is obliged to emphasize the totally fearless steadfastness and unyielding attitudes toward the enemy of the collective farmers, but some people, some departments, some urban councilors, think of nothing but saving their own hides. It is explained by the great power in the Jewish stratum in the cities. Their proclamations have resulted in animal terror of Hitler and instead of struggle - flight. In conclusion, I reiterate the petition for relief arms for collective farmers, Communists and Comsomol (Young Communist League) members, so that the front in not cut off, also shells.

Published from:

Izvestia TsK KPSS, (Proceedings of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union) No. 7, 1990, pp 210-211.


* In 1935, coal miner named Stakhanov managed to mine 102 tons of coal in a 6-hour shift, which was 5 times as much as the average worker's quota. This induced a flurry of campaigns across the Soviet Union pressuring workers to strive for similar super-achievements Return


[Page 346]

Who Were Your Oppressors?

Translated by Judith Springer

bel346.gif  [62 KB]

Who flooded your land with streams of tears and blood?

Kikes and their communist henchmen!

Who took the last shirts off your backs? Who squeezed the last juices out of you?

Kikes and their communist henchmen!

Who took away all the grain from your granaries and made you starve?

Kikes and their communist henchmen!

Who informed on you, who exiled you from your homes of many years, thus condemning you to death from starvation?

Kikes and their communist henchmen!

Who left you to rot alive in concentration camps and prisons?

Kikes and their communist henchmen!

Who tormented to death millions of your fathers, mothers, your husbands, wives, and children, in NKVD torture chambers?

Kikes and their communist henchmen!


NEVER FORGET!

That Kikes are the worst enemies of your people!

That Kikes advocate communism only in order to achieve world domination for themselves.

The International represents the power of Kikes.

In the Soviet Union, as well as in capitalist states, all power is in the hands of Kikes.

Capitalist Kikes have united with communist Kikes and are fighting against the state of true freedom and real socialism -- Germany.

The Soviet Union is the kingdom of Kikes. Stalin is only a signboard. All these Kaganoviches, Sobelsons, Finkelshteyns, and other Jewish groupings are hiding behind his back. They are disguising themselves under Russian names in order to deceive you.

NEVER FORGET!

That Jewish propaganda, saying that the Soviet Union was a workers' paradise, lied to you. In reality, the most flagrant social injustice reigned there.

State capitalism -- the most horrible form of capitalism -- reigned in the Soviet Union.

Under the yoke of this state capitalism, workers and peasants in the Soviet Union were collapsing from backbreaking work.

Kikes and their communist henchmen were brutally exploiting workers in the Soviet Union, while they were leading a dissolute and dissipated life.

Now an end has come to this Jewish exploitation and deception.

ADOLF HITLER, HIMSELF THE SON OF A WORKER,

Liberated German workers and peasants from bloody Jewish exploitation.

He saved them, preventing an attack on Germany by the Jewish stooge and murderer Stalin.

Adolf Hitler drove away Kikes and their communist henchmen.

Help with all your might to more quickly eliminate the consequences of this unfortunate war. A happy life awaits you.

LET US ALL FOLLOW ADOLF HITLER TO A BETTER FUTURE AND A NEW HAPPY LIFE

(National Archive of the Republic of Belarus, fond [collection] 750, opis [inventory] 1, delo [file] 318, list [folio] 24. A copy is kept in Yad Vashem Archives, M-41/158).

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