Table of Contents

[Pages 147-148]

Beius/Belenyes [1]

4640' 2221'

Translated by Esther Newman and Shai Tzach
Center for Jewish History, New York, NY

The community was established in 1852 with 15 members, after they received permission to settle Jews in the city from the Orthodox Romanian Bishop of Oradea [2]. Five years later they built a synagogue, a mikve [ritual bath] and homes for the community workers. Until 1883, they paid community dues voluntarily. In that year, the city was made the district administrative center and was responsible for registering vital records from 103 surrounding villages and towns.

A school was opened in Belenyes for the Orthodox community, which was among the first Jewish schools in Transylvania. Moshe Haadi taught combined classes, Grades 1 and 2 before noon and Grades 3 and 4 after noon.

Of 225 families with 1,162 souls, 196 paid taxes. Yakov [Sandor] Rubin served as the rabbi and then moved to Mihalyfalva [3]. Rabbi Simon Pollak, author of the Book of Midrashim “Shem Shimon [Name of Simon],” was the rabbi from the year 1909 until his death in 1929. After serving as the next rabbi of the congregation, Asher Pollak moved to Oradea. Asher Grossberg and Noach Baruch Fisher also served as rabbis. Some of the pillars of the community were Gerson Guttmann, Emanuel Girner, Mordechai [Marton] Schauer and Michael [Mihaly] Schwimmer, shopkeepers; Eliezer [Lazar] Lew, owner of a smoking-pipe factory; and Moshe [Mor] Schonberger, owner of a soap factory.

The synagogue was built in 1858 and enlarged in 1894 at the expense of Vaskoh [4]. The Burial Society [Chevra Kadisha] was established in 1857.

The expenses for religious needs came to a half million lei, and over half that sum was spent for social welfare needs. The following were active in the leadership of the community: the lawyer Dr. [Alajos] Politzer, Chairman; Albert Weisz, Administrator; Bernat Leipnik, Treasurer; Freiberger, Accountant; Eliezer [Lazar] Levi, Secretary. Michael [Mihaly] Schlesinger and Yitzhak [Ignac] Freiberger were the officers of the Burial Society [Chevra Kadisha].

In the 1930s the situation of the Jews worsened, and in 1940 the Legionnaires attacked the synagogue and the houses of the community, causing heavy damage.

Bibliography:

Lexicon of the Jews of Budapest, 1929, p. 105 [5]
Yitzhaki, S. The Jewish Schools in Transylvania, Between the Two World Wars, p. 162

Footnotes:
  1. Judetul Bihor, Romania, since 1920; formerly Bihar Megye, Hungary Return
  2. Judetul Bihor, Romania, since 1920; Formerly Nagyvarad, Bihar Megye, Hungary; also known as Grosswardein Return
  3. Valea Lui Mihai, Judetul Bihor, Romania, since 1920; formerly Ermihalyfalva, Bihar Megye, Hungary Return
  4. Vascau, Judetul Bihor, Romania, since 1920; formerly Vaskoh, Bihar Megye, Hungary Return
  5. Magyar Zsido Lexicon, Peter Ujvari, ed. [reprinted by Makkabi Kiado: Budapest, 2000] Return


[Page 148]

Ceica/Magyarcseke [1]

4651' 2211'

Translated by Shai Tzach
Center for Jewish History, New York, NY

At the beginning of the 20th century Ceica had an independent Orthodox congregation and was a center for the surrounding towns and villages, which in turn helped fund the rabbi, Kosher butcher, etc. Before that it was dependent on Beius [2]. Before the end of the 19th century a synagogue and mikve [ritual bath] were built, a Burial Society [Chevra Kadisha] and a cemetery were established. In 1909 Rabbi Natan Tzvi Brisk, who was one of the most important halachic scholars, was chosen as the congregation's leader. The rabbi was asked questions in halacha and daily matters from all over the country. He wrote “Mourning His Father” and “Esther Essay.” In 1929 he moved to Salonta [3]; from there he was taken to Auschwitz, where he was killed. His son-in-law, Rabbi Haharon Tzvi Brisk, took his place. He moved to Arad after WWII, where he led a big Yeshiva that moved to the city of Netanya (Israel) in the 1950s. The Jews in Ceica made their living from agricultural products, mainly cheese. Villagers were also involved in this industry and that prompted questions regarding Shabbat observance and forbidden foods. These questions were sent to the rabbis in Transylvania. During the Holocaust, the Jews suffered terribly, the synagogue was destroyed and Jewish property was taken.

Bibliography:

Avraham Tzvi Yakuv on the Transylvanian Jewry, p. 98, 161, 193, 216, 249, 251
Registry of Southern Romanian Congregations, p. 338

Footnotes:
  1. Judetul Bihor, Romania, since 1920; formerly Bihar Megye, Hungary Return
  2. Judetul Bihor, Romania, since 1920; formerly Belenyes, Bihar Megye, Hungary Return
  3. Judetul Bihor, Romania, since 1920; formerly Nagyszalonta, Bihar Megye, Hungary Return


[Page 149]

Tinca/Tenke [1]

4646' 2157'

Translated by Esther Newman and Shai Tzach
Center for Jewish History, New York, NY

The community was Orthodox and was established in 1830 by Ede Weisz, Jozsef Adler, Grusky, and Jonas Ritter. In 1869 they built a synagogue and mikve [ritual bath] and inaugurated a Burial Society [Chevra Kadisha]. The community became a registration center for the surrounding villages, and was headed by Asher Kain, who fulfilled the role of rabbi. In 1899, Rabbi Mozes Friedlander was chosen as the Chief Rabbi, followed by Rabbi Zalman Friedman, who wrote a new interpretation of the Talmud and gathered Midrashim for the book Three-Fold Blessing (Grosswardein [2]). The Jews were active in economic life and founded two steam mills for electricity, several water-powered grinding mills, a brick factory, and other businesses which employed mainly Jews who lived nearby.


Footnotes:
  1. Judetul Bihor, Romania, since 1920; formerly Bihar Megye, Hungary Return
  2. Currently Oradea, Judetul Bihor, Romania; formerly Nagyvarad, Bihar Megye, Hungary Return


[Page 152]

Barodul Mare/Nagybarod [1]

4659' 2238'

Translated by Esther Newman and Shai Tzach
Center for Jewish History, New York, NY

Early documents regarding this community date from the 1800s. The synagogue was built in 1850, and expanded in 1918, when a women's mezzanine was added. Yakov [Jeno] Hemler, Chairman, and rabbi Moshe [Mor] Schwarcz managed the Burial Society [Chevra Kadisha]. The Talmud-Torah had about 20 students. The community's budget was 140,000 lei, of which about 10% was spent for charity. Of 52 families with 280 souls, 50 paid dues. They included, by occupation: 3 wholesale merchants, 2 farmers, 7 shopkeepers, 6 laborers, 1 doctor, 2 government employees, 10 clerks, and 15 others. On the Board of Directors were Moshe [Mor] Schwarcz, Chairman, Yakov [Jeno] Steinfeld, Vice-Chair, and Michael [Mihaly] Rosman, Manager.

Bibliography:

Lexicon of the Jews of Budapest, 1929, p. 626 [2]

Footnotes:
  1. Borod, Judetul Bihor, Romania, since 1920; formerly Nagybarod, Bihar Megye, Hungary Return
  2. Magyar Zsido Lexicon, Peter Ujvari, ed. [reprinted by Makkabi Kiado: Budapest, 2000] Return

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