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Pledge of Allegiance by the Disciples of the Ari and R. Hayyim Vital
(1575) *

Signatures of the disciples of R. Yitshak Luria ('Ha Ari')
and R. Hayyim Vital (1575) [from the Stolin genizah]

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'We the undersigned have pledged ourselves to form a single company to worship the Divine Name and study His Law day and night, as we shall be instructed by the perfect and divine Sage, the Rav and Teacher, R. Hayyim Vital (may his light shine forth!), and we shall learn with him the true wisdom and be faithful in spirit, concealing all that he shall tell us, and we shall not trouble him by pressing him too much for things that he does not wish to reveal to us, and we shall not reveal to others any secret of all that we shall hear spoken in truth by his mouth, nor of all that he taught us in the past, nor even of what he taught us in the lifetime of our Teacher, the great Rav, R. Yitshak Luria Ashkenazi (of blessed memory) during all that time; and even what we heard from the lips of our Teacher, the above-named Rav (of blessed memory), we shall not be able to reveal without his permission, since we should not understand these things if he had not explained them to us. This pledge, taken under solemn oath in the Name of the Lord, concerns our Teacher, the above mentioned Rav, R. Hayyim (may his light shine forth!); and the duration of this pledge is from today for ten consecutive years. Today is the second day of the week, the 25th Menahem Av, 5335 of the creation [1575], here in Tsfath (Safed] (may it be built and established speedily in our days!); and all these words are clear and valid.'


'Sefer Ha-Tsoref'

by R. Yehoshua Heshel Tsoref
(born 1633, died 1700 or 1720)

Forewords by the Copyists of the Manuscript

'With God's help, the words of the first copyist. This is the SeIer Ha-Tsoref [The Book of the Refiner] which was found in the house of our Master, our Teacher the Rav Ribash [R. Yisrael Baal Shem] (of righteous and holy memory), and in which the following was written: This book was composed by the perfect and revered Sage, through whom the spirit of the Lord spoke and His word was on his lips, the Teacher R. Heshel Tsoref from the community of Krakov, who had a different spirit, as it is written: "A pure heart He has created for me," etc.; and from Heaven he was vouchsafed various wondrous and awesome mysteries, for all of which ( ?) he provided authority, almost every single one of them being based on a small verse in the Torah, "Hear, 0 Israel!" When you, 0 reader, see them (God willing) in the original hand of the author and when you look at page 130, he [sc. you] will know from the contents of his manuscript that it is more than human intelligence. Especially as it is explained how four volumes like these were written about the verse, Hear, 0 Israel! Thus far what was written of the author. The father of the author was called R. Yosef, as explained on leaf 400, in the passage beginning with the words "You shall rule," at the end of the passage. There it is explained that the spirit of the Messiah revealed itself in him, as I was told by the talmudic scholar, the Teacher R. Shabbethai of Rashkov (may his memory be blessed!), on the authority of Ribash, in the following words: The year 1648 was the time of grace for the Lord... to create the soul of Messiah. And when, on account of our many iniquities, there was an accusation [sc. divine displeasure] against Israel (Heaven deliver us!), the author took upon himself to compose several books through an act of repentance that he then performed. See leaf 31of the author's work;... and possibly page [?] referred to this. This book is the fourth part, as the author wrote in this book several times. The author was a refiner [i.e., goldsmith, Heb. Tsoref], as he wrote on page 409, see there.

And the Teacher R. Shabbethai told me that the Ribash had intended to make a copy of it. The Ribash therefore gave it to him to copy out, but in the meantime the Ribash was summoned to heaven, and his son, R. Tsevi Hirsch (of blessed memory) came and took this book from his house, until eventually this book came into the hands of the son of R. Tsevi Hirsch, the Sage R. Aharon (may his light shine forth!). He agreed with my Teacher, R. Yeshayahu Halevi, who was a Maggid in the community of Dinavits [i.e., Dunayevtsy], that a copy shou1d be made of this book, when he saw that this precious work was in danger of being lost as the pages were becoming defaced. Then I, a young man sitting at the feet of the righteous, came forward and was ordered by the Teacher R. Yeshayahu to copy it out. 'He also sent me written instructions to copy it out letter by letter. After the usual greetings, he informed me that, when he was in the community of Kasnitin, he had seen the Sefer Ha-Tsoref in the home of the learned scholar and 'Teacher R. Aharon, the grandson of the Besht, and had spoken with him about making a copy of that book and publishing it; also that he had mentioned there that I could copy it out; and that they had agreed that I should live in the house of R. Yeshayahu, both on "Sabbaths and on weekdays. For the above-mentioned man had undertaken this in his presence gladly and most affectionately. A special room had been set aside for the writing, and if I was willing to go there, so much the better. Such were the contents of the letter written by the Teacher, the Rav and Maggid, R Yeshayahu Halevi.

For several years from the time of R. Shabbethai of Rashkov I kept on thinking how I could succeed in carrying out this task of copying it [the book] letter by letter, as I have now done. When I saw the book, I found that it (refers from leaf to leaf, so I decided to write it out leaf by leaf. Only, there was too much written on the leaf, so that it was impossible to copy it exactly leaf for leaf, and I therefore chose to transfer all the annotations on the page into the body of the text. Moreover, on every single page I marked off the annotations between two half moons, one like this ( at the beginning, and one like this ) at the end. And where I found yet another handwriting on the page, I marked it off from the first by a sign like this (( at the beginning, and like this )) at the end, to show that it was another handwriting. Subsequently, I discovered that this was the handwriting of the author's son, as is explained on leaf 230a (see there), and this writing was so old that it was almost effaced. But Heaven granted me the privilege to be its copyist, and with the help of the Lord, Whose loving kindness did not desert me or the learned author, I was given the strength and good eyesight to be able to copy it. Praise be to God who by His grace enabled me to see where mortal men cannot see, for the manuscript had been effaced by age. Also, the handwriting was very small, and without God's help it would have been impossible to copy it. But God was with me and helped me. I also make grateful mention of Sage R. Aharon, the grandson of the Besht, who lent me the book to take to my home. For when I saw how great the work was and that the task could not be performed in a day, I was obliged by the pressure of the times to take the book home with me, since I could not be away from my home, for without flour there is no study [i.e., a scholar must earn enough to feed himself]. Blessed be He that has helped me thus far to copy it; and may the merits of the author, together with the merits of the Rav Ribash and of all the righteous ones who wished to have a copy made of this book, be my support, that I may be of those that worship the Lord with love and awe, according to His will. Such are the words of the first copyist, Yehoshua, the son of the Teacher Aharon of Dinavits, resident in the community of Dinavits.

This book was also in the archives of the holy Teacher and Man of God, the Rav and Maggid of Chernobyl (of blessed and righteous memory) to whom it was left by his father the Tsaddik... who had copied it from the text that he found… written in the house of the Tsaddik R. Yeshayahu Halevi of Dinavits; and after his death it was divided up by lots between three of his sons, since it was bound in three parts, the middle part being as large as both the first and last together. It was agreed between them that, if one of the sons wished to have it [sc. the whole book] copied out for himself, then the other two would give him their parts to be copied. The first to have a copy made was the renowned Teacher R. Aharon (long may he live!) the son of the above-mentioned Rav, by the copyist Mordekhai the son of Rivkah of Kovli [Kovel]. Next came his equally saintly brother... R. Moshe... who had the good fortune to receive by lot the middle part of his father's library; this Moshe had the first and last parts too copied out for himself, also by the above-named copyist, two being better than one... And now the third holy Sage to rouse himself [to the task] was the sons' kinsman, the Rav and Teacher R. Aharon of Karlin, who desired to have a copy of this book made for him, also by the above-named copyist; and since he was their kith and kin, he gladly, with their [sc. the sons') permission placed this holy book in his library at the disposal of that copyist who lives here in Chernobyl. Moreover, since the middle part as divided up by lot among the brothers (may their righteousness protect us!) contains twice as many pages as the other parts, as can be seen from its thickness, and since it is hard to carry, the copyist divided it into two -- the first time in the copy of the renowned Teacher R. Aharon, and again now, making twice altogether. All the parts appear pleasingly equal in size and evoke the admiration of all beholders for the excellent work, since they are all almost the same in shape and size and all together contain the pure teaching of the Lord, for they all form parts of one whole. By the merits of the author, may it speedily be granted us to say "Behold, this is our God! And may the reader walk in the straight path and comprehend the words aright.”

Postscripts by the Copyists

The first copyist declares: Thus far the manuscript of the author, the Gaon and Teacher, R. Yehoshua Heshel the son of R. Yosef of Krakov, and I have copied it as I found it and as I have explained at the beginning of the transcript. Therefore this is the end of this copy, which is the second copy, on the fifth day of the week, Portion of the Law Reeh, the 28th of the month Menahem Av, in this year [5]542 [=1782], by Yehoshua, the son of the Teacher and Rav R. Aharon (may his light shine forth!) of Dinavits, resident in the holy community of Dinavits.

And now I, the copyist Mordekhai, the son of Rivkah, offer praise to God Who has granted me to copy this, the fourth and last part of the Sefer Ha-Tsoref, and has helped me to complete it. I trust that God will raise me up and again have mercy on me and speedily deliver Us; and that the merit of the author will powerfully protect us, that we may not be found wanting in anything, for this book was divided into four parts on account of its size and thickness. May the merit of the author be with us for ever, that this book may be among the books of the righteous whose names are enshrined in this book; and we and our children and our children's children will worship the Lord and keep His commandments and laws and cleave to Him, Blessed Be He.


A Map of Lithuanian Hasidism


Genealogical Table of the Karlin Dynasty and its Branches


Genealogical Table of the Libeshei and Berezna Dynasties


Genealogical Table of the Horodok Dynasty


Musical Scores of Hasidic Melodies

Click here to extend the picture

Click here to extend the picture


Glossary

ADAR:         Jewish month, corresponding to February-March.
ADMOR: Leader and teacher of the hasidim. See also: Tsaddik, Rebbe.
AGGADAH: All that part of talmudic literature which consists of edificatory stories and legends.
AM HA-ARETS: A Jew with no knowledge of Jewish matters, contrasted with a talmudic scholar.
ARI: Abbreviation of Ashkenazi R. Yitshak (Luria) of Safed, leading kabbalist and mystic.
AV: Jewish month, corresponding to July-August.
AV BETH-DIN: Head of the rabbinical court of law.
AZHAROTH: Exhortations.
BAAL SEEM: 'Master of the Name' -- a man able to perform miracles through the name of God. BAAL SHEM TOV: 'Master of the Good Name,' the name given to R. Yisrael ben Eliezer, the founder of hasidism; the Besht.
BE-HAALOTHKHA: Weekly Portion of the Law, beginning with the words, 'When you set up the lamps' (Num. 8, 1).
BESHT: See Baal Shem Tov.
BETH-DIN: Rabbinical court.
BETH MlDRASH, pl. BATEI MlDRASH: House of worship and study.
CHERVONTSY: A Russian coin.
DAYAN: Judge of rabbinical court; Jewish judge.
DEVEKUTH: Intensity of devotion.
DIVREI TORAH: Discourse on a topic of (hasidic) doctrine, usually based on a scriptural passage, which the Tsaddik would deliver at the communal meal with his hasidim.
ELUL: The month preceding the New Year and Day of Atonement. It is devoted to self-examination and soul-searching in preparation for the divine judgment. Corresponds to September-October.
ERETS YISRAEL: Palestine, 'The Land of Israel'.
GABBAI: An honorary officer of a synagogue or other communal institution who acts as treasurer; amongst the hasidim, he also assists the Rebbe.
GALUTH: The dispersion of the Jews in exile.
GAON, pl. GEONIM: Honorific title of address for any outstanding talmudic scholar; applied in particular to R. Eliyahu of Vilna.
GEMARA: That part of the Talmud which consists of discussions of the Mishnah.
GENIZAH: Depository in which Hebrew books and documents were placed for safe-keeping. GOLAH: The Jewish Diaspora.
HABAD: The hasidic movement founded by R Shneur-Zalman of Ladi.
HAGGAHOTH: Annotations.
HAKKAFOTH: Circuits made in the synagogue with the Scrolls of the Law on Simhath Torah.
HALAKHAH, pl. HALAKHOTH: A legal regulation prescribed by the Written and Oral Law. HALAKHIC: Belonging to halakhah (q.v.).
HALUKKAH: Contributions raised from among the Jews of the Diaspora and distributed as charity to the Jewish poor of the Holy Land.
HANHAGOTH YESHAROTH: Rules of Right Conduct.
HANUKKAH: The Feast of Lights, commemorating the victory of the Maccabees.
HASKALAH: The 19th century enlightenment movement for the modernization of Jewish life.
HATSOTH: Midnight lamentation in memory of the destruction of the Temple.
HAVDALAH: Benediction recited at the close of Sabbaths and Festivals.
HAZZAN: Synagogue cantor; reader of prayers.
HEDER: (Religious) school.
HEREM: Religious excommunication; social boycott.
HESHVAN: Month of Jewish year, corresponding to October-November.
HEVRAH KADDISHA: Burial society.
HOSHANA RABBAH: The 7th day of Sukkoth, on which the willow branches -- a part of the 'Four Kinds' -- are stripped of their leaves.
HOVATH HA-LEVAVOTH: 'The Hearts' Duty', a book of Jewish religious philosophy.
ILANA DE-TSADDIKAYA: The Genealogical Tree of the Tsaddikim.
IYYAR: Month of the Jewish year, corresponding to April-May.
KABBALAH: Esoteric lore of Jewish mysticism.
KAHAL: A Jewish community and its administration.
KASHER: Ritually clean; permitted as food by the Mosaic Law.
KASHRUTH: Ritual purity; observance of dietary laws.
KAVVANAH: Intensity of mental concentration and emotional devotion in the utterance of a prayer or in the performance of a religious act; the mystical meaning of prayer.
KEHILLAH: Jewish community.
KIDDUSH: Benediction pronounced over wine on Sabbaths and Festivals.
KISLEV: Month of Jewish year, corresponding to November-December.
KITTEL: Long white robe, worn, on Rosh-Hashanah and Yom Kippur and on the Seder night; also used as cerement.
KOL NIDREI: 'All Vows' -- the initial words in the solemn formula of absolution, intoned in the synagogue on the eve of the Day of Atonement.
KOLEL: Organized division of Jewish community in Palestine for receipt of halukkah.
KOROBKA: (Russian) Communal tax on meat and other commodities in the Russian Jewish communities. Cf. Pinkas Medinath Lita, ed. Dubnow, p. 340, s.v.: Kropkee, Berlin 1925.
KUNTRES, pl, KUNTRESIM: Tract.
LAG BA-OMER: 33rd day of the counting of the omer (from the second day of Passover); a day of rejoicing.
MAARIV: Evening prayer.
MAGGID: Preacher, often itinerant; hasidic teacher.
MAHASHAVAH: Thought.
MASKIL: Active supporter of haskalah movement (q.v.).
MASORAH: Traditional Jewish way of life.
MATSAH, pl. MATSOTH: Unleavened bread eaten at Passover.
MEAH SHEARIM: Quarter of Jerusalem, occupied by ultra-orthodox Jews.
MEDINAH, MEDINATH: Province, State.
MELAMMED, pl. MELAMMEDIM: Teacher of children.
MELAVVEH MALKAH: The meal taken by the hasidim after the departure' of the 'Queen Sabbath', accompanied by community singing and often an address by the Tsaddik.
MIDRASH: Allegorical exegesis of Biblical texts.
MIKRA: Bible.
MIKVEH: Ritual bath.
MINHAH: Afternoon prayer.
MINYAN: Prayer quorum of ten adult males.
MISHNAH: The earliest part of the Talmud.
MISNAGDIM: See Mithnagdim.
MlTHNAGDIM: The opponents of hasidism.
MITNAGED, pl. MITHNAGEDIM: See Mithnagdim.
MITHNAGGEDIM: See Mithnagdim.
MlTSVAH, pl. MITSVOTH: Religious injunction.
MIZRAHI: Zionist organization of orthodox Jews.
MOREH TSEDEK: Rabbinical judge.
MUSAR: Movement stressing moral values.
NER TAMID: Perpetual light.
NIGGUN: Melody; tune. Ha-Niggun ha-Kadosh. The holy tune.
NIGLEH: The written and oral law, as codified in the Talmud.
NISAN: Jewish month, corresponding to March-April
NISTAR: Hidden lore of the Kabbalah.
OHEL: Structure over a grave.
OMER: Sheaf taken from the first fruits and offered in the temple (Lev. xxiii, 9-14). See Lag Ba-Omer.
PERUSHIM: Groups of disciples of the Gaon R. Eliyahu of Vilna in the Holy Land.
PESAH: Passover, the spring Festival commemorating the Exodus from Egypt.
PINKAS: Communal register; private notes.
PINKAS VAAD HA-KEHILLOTH HA-RASHIYOTH DI-MEDINATH LITA or PINKAS MEDINATH LITA: Register of the principal communities of the Province of Lithuania.
POLOZHENIYE: (Russian) Laws affecting Jews promulgated by the Russian Government.
PORITS: Gentile aristocrat and estate owner.
POSEKIM: Authors of halakhic rulings.
PURIM: Festival commemorating the deliverance of the Jews recorded in Book of Esther. RABBI: General term for Jewish scholar.
RAV, pl. RABBANIM: Teacher of the Law; Jewish judge, and spiritual head of the community.
REBBE: A hasidic Tsaddik is designated as 'Rebbe' as distinct from the Rabbi proper or the Rav who discharges the rabbinical functions as spiritual leader of the whole community
ROSH HA-KAHAL, pl. RASHIM: Head of the community.
ROSH-HASHANAH: New Year Festival.
ROSH HODESH: New Moon.
ROSH YESHIVAH: Head of a talmudic school.
ROZEN, pl. ROZENIM: Communal leader.
SEDER: The service commemorating the Exodus, conducted in the home on the eve of Passover.
SEFER ZIKKARON: Memorial Volume.
SHABBATH KODESH: Holy Sabbath.
SHAMASH: Caretaker and usher; Rebbe's servant.
SHAVUOTH: 'Festival of Weeks', commemorating the Giving of the Law and the ingathering of the first fruits.
SHEMA: 'Hear 0 Israel', the Jewish profession of faith, recited daily in the morning and evening prayers.
SHETAR HITHKASHRUTH: Pledge of loyalty.
SHIDDUKH: Negotiations preliminary to marriage; a marriage agreement; a match.
SHOFAR: Ram's horn, blown in the synagogue on Rosh-Hashanah.
SHOHET: Ritual slaughterer.
SHTIEBEL: Name given to hasidic prayer-house.
SHULHAN ARUKH: Codification of halakhic law.
SHULKHEN: Small prayer-house.
SIDDUR: Prayer-book.
SIMHAH: Rejoicing; joy; happy occasion.
SIMHATH TORAH: 'Rejoicing of the Law' -- joyous Festival on the day following Sukkoth. SIVAN: Jewish month, corresponding to May-June.
SURRAH: Booth, tabernacle.
SUKKOTH: Festival of Tabernacles, commemorating the wandering in the desert and the fruit harvest.
TAANITH ESTHER: Fast on the day before Purim.
'TABLE': Festive communal meal of the hasidim at which the Tsaddik delivered an address.
TAKANAH. pl. TAKANOTH: Measure, enactment.
TALITH. pl., TALITHOTH: Prayer-shawl.
TALMUD: Mishnah and Gemara.
TALMUD TORAH: Communal school.
TAMMUZ: Jewish month, corresponding to June-July.
TANYA: Hasidic philosophical work by R. Shneur-Zalman of Ladi.
TASHLIKH: Ceremonial purification from sin on the New Year.
TEREFAH: Ritually unclean food.
TEVETH: Jewish month, corresponding to December-January.
'THIRD MEAL': The Sabbath meal, eaten after the minhah prayer and accompanied by Hasidic community singing and an address by the Tsaddik.
TlSHRI: Jewish month, corresponding to September-October.
TORAH: The Mosaic Law; the teaching of Judaism.
TOSAFOTH: Exegetical annotation to the Talmud.
TSADDIK: Head and teacher of a hasidic community.
TSADDlKISM: Personal cult of the Tsaddik.
TSAVAAH: Will; testament.
TSOREF: Refiner, purifier.
VAAD HA-MEDINAH: Council of the Province.
VA-YAKHEL: Portion of the Law beginning with the words 'And Moses assembled' (Exod. 35, 1).
VIDDUY: Confession of sins.
YAMIM NORAIM: Penitential Days; Days of Awe.
'YENUKA': Child chosen by hasidim as their future leader; Rebbe.
YESHIVAH, pl. YESHIVOTH: High school for study of Talmud.
YETSER HA-RA: Evil inclination.
YIRAH: Religious awe.
YIZKOR: Memorial (Volume).
YOM KIPPUR: Day of Atonement, a day of fasting and repentance.
ZEMIROTH: Liturgical songs.
ZOHAR: 'Book of Splendor', the chief work of the earlier Kabbalah and of Jewish mysticism.


Bibliography

In the case of books which have been published several times, the edition referred to in the Bibliography is that used in this work.


Aharon mi-Karlin: Beth Aharon (Aharon of Karlin: The House of Aaron) Brody 1875.
Akty Izdavayemyye Vielenskoyu Kommissiyeyu dIya Razbora Drevnikh Aktov (Records ed. by the Vilna Commission for the Examination of Ancient Documents) Vol. XXVIII, Vilna 1901, and Vol. XXIX, Vilna 1902.
Avatihi, A.: Ha-Shosheleth ha-Bereznaith {The Berezna Dynasty) Stolin Memorial Volume, ed. by Avatihi, A. and Ben-Zakai, Y., Tel Aviv 1952.
BeigeI, G.: Ayarathi Berezna (My Native Town, Berezna) Tel Aviv 1954.
Ben-Ezra, A.: Ha-Yenuka mi-Stolin (The Yenuka of Stolin) New York 1951.
Ben-Ezra, A.: Ha-Rav Avraham Eisenstein (Rabbi Abraham Eisenstein) Drohicin Memorial Volume, ed. by D. B. Warshawski, Chicago 1958.
Benjamini, Y.: Hilluf Mishmaroth be-Hatsar ha-Rebbe (The Old Guard and the New in the Court of the Rebbe) Stolin Memorial Volume, Tel Aviv 1952.
Ben-Porath, B.: Ha-Admor mi-Karlin (The Rebbe of Karlin) Ha-Tsofeh (daily paper), Tel Aviv 22.6.1945.
Ben-Zakai, Y: Ha-Kether she-Nuppats (The Crown That Was Dashed in Pieces), Or Zarua, A Collection of Records and Pieces, ed. by Avatihi, A., and Ben-Zakai, Y., Tel Aviv l952.
[Y. Berger]: Eser Tsahtsahoth (Ten Splendors) Petrokov 1910.
Bihovski, H. A.: Ginzei Nistaroth (Hidden Treasures) Jerusalem 1924.
[Bodek, M.]: Seder ha-Doroth mi-Talmidei ha-Besht (Order of the Generations of the Besht's Disciples), no place and no date of publication.
Brafman, Y.: Kniga Kahala (The Book of the Kahal) quoted by Dubnow in the Voskhod, 1892, No. 11.
Braver, A. Y.: AI ha-Mahloketh bein R. Shneur-Zalman mi-Ladi ve-R. Avraham Hacohen mi-Kalisk (On the Dispute Between R. Shneur-Zalman of Ladi and R. Abraham Hacohen of Kalisk) Kiryath Sefer, Vol. I, Jerusalem 1924.
Brisk de-Lita (Brest-Litovsk) Memorial Volume, ed. A. Steinman, Jerusalem 1954.
Buber, M.: Tales of the Hasidim, Early Masters, New York 1966.
Buber, M.: Tales of the Hasidim, Later Masters, New York 1966.
Bunim, M.: Ahron ha-Admorim be-Karlin (The Last of the Rebbes in Karlin) Stolin Memorial Volume, Tel Aviv 1952.
Chemerinsky, H.: Ayarathi Motele {My Native Town, Motele) Tel Aviv 1951.
David-Horodok, Sefer Zikkaron (David-Horodok Memorial Volume) ed. Idan, Y. and others, Tel Aviv, no date of publication.
Dinur, Benzion: Be-Mifneh ha-Doroth (At the Turning Point of the Generations) Jerusalem 1955.
Dolinko, A.: Kakh Nehervu Kehilloth Pinsk ve-Karlin (How the Pinsk and Karlin Communities Were Destroyed) Tel Aviv, stencil, no date of duplication.
Dov-Baer of Mezench: Magid Devarav le-Yaakov (Proclaiming His Words unto Jacob) Lublin 1927.
Drohichin Memorial Volume, ed. D. B. Warshawski, Chicago 1958.
Dubnow, S.: Toledoth ha-Hasiduth (History of Hasidism) Tel Aviv 1932.
Dubnow, S.: Chassidiana, Supplement to the He-Avar, Vol. II, Petrograd 1918.
Dubnow, S.: Kithvei Hithnagduth al Kath ha-Hasidim (Mithnaged Writings about the Sect of the Hasidim) Devir Vol. I, Berlin 1923.
Dubnow, S.: Vmeshatelstvo Russkovo Pravitelstva v Anti-Hasidskuyu Borbu (The Intervention of the Russian Government in the Struggle against Hasidism) Yevreyskaya Starina, Vol. III St. Petersburg 1910.
Dubnow Archives, in Yiddish Scientific Institute -- YlVO, New York, manuscripts.
Eisen, A.: R. Aharon ha-Gadol (R. Aharon the Great) Ha-Modia, daily paper, Jerusalem 6.10.1954.
Eliezer Halevi: Siah ha-Sadeh (The Bush of the Field) Shklov 1787.
Eliezer Halevi: Reiah ha-Sadeh (The Perfume of the Field) Shklov 1795.
Emden, Yaakov: Siddur 'Beth Yaakov' ('House of Jacob' Prayer-Book) Warsaw 1881.
Entsiklopediyah Yisraelith (Encyclopedia Judaica) Vol. 1, Eschkol-Edition, Berlin 1929.
Eshkoli, A. Z.: Ha-Hasiduth be-Polin, Beth Yisrael be-Polin (Hasidism in Poland, The House of Israel in Poland) Pt. II, ed. Halpern, L., Jerusalem 1953.
Feingold, Y.: Gilgulo shel Niggun (The History of a Melody) Davar, daily paper, Tel Aviv 28.12.1945.
Fishko, B.: Gilgulei Hayyim (Vicissitudes of Life) Tel Aviv 1948.
Friedkin, A.: A. B. Gottlober un Sayn Epokhe (A. B. Gottlober and His Epoch) Vilna 1925.
Frumkin, A. L.: Toledoth Hakhme Yerushalayim (The History of the Sages of Jerusalem) additions by A. Rivlin, Jerusalem 1929.
Fuen, S. Y.: Kiryah Neemanah (The Faithful City) Vilna 1860.
Geshuri, M. S.: Niggunei Karlin u-Stolin (Melodies of Karlin and Stolin) Stolin Memorial Volume, ed. Avatihi, A., and Ben-Zakai, Y., Tel Aviv 1952.
Gordon, Y. L.: Olam ke-Minhago, Sippur Sheni, Ahrith Simhah Tugah (The World as Usual, Second Story, Joy Ends in Sadness) Vilna 1873.
Gordon, Y.L.: Iggeroth (Letters) Vol. I, Warsaw 1895.
Gottlieb, S. N.: Oholei Shem (The Tents of Shem) Pinsk 1912.
Gottlieb, Y.: Ein Onshin Ela Mazhirin (No Punishment, but a Warning) Pinsker Wort No. 75.
Graetz, H.: Geschichte der Juden (History of the Jews) Vol. I, Leipzig 1890.
Grossman, L.: Shem u-Sheerith (A Name and Remnant) Tel Aviv 1943.
Grossman, L.: Sheerith la-Sheerith, Supplement to Shem u-Sheerith (A Remnant of a Remnant) no place and date of publication.
Had min Havraya: Hithgalluth ha-Yenuka bi-Stolin (The Revelation of the Yenuka in Stolin) Ha-Shahar, Vol. VI, Vienna 1875.
Halpern, L: Yahaso shel R. Aharon ha-Gadol mi- Karlin klappei Mishtar ha-Kehilloth (The Attitude of R. Aaron the Great of Karlin to the Kehillah System) Zion, 22nd year, Jerusalem 1957.
Halpern, L: Havuroth la-Torah ve-la-Mitsvoth ve-ha-Hasiduth be-Hithpashtutah (Groups for the Study of the Torah and for Mitsvoth and the Spread of Hasidic Movement) Zion, 22nd year, Jerusalem 1957.
Hausman, A.: Divrei Aharon (The Words of Aaron) Jerusalem 1962.
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***: Gad-Asher Levin, Pinsker Stot Luah (Gad-Asher Levin in the Pinsker Year-Book) Vilna 1903/4

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