Encyclopaedia of Jewish Communities. Lithuania.

Translation of Pinkas ha-kehilot. Lita: entsiklopedyah shel ha-yishuvim
ha-Yehudiyim le-min hivasdam ve-`ad le-ahar Sho'at Milhemet ha-`Olam ha-Sheniyah.

Editor: Prof. Dov Levin, Assistant Editor: Josef Rosin

Published by Yad Vashem

Published in Jerusalem 1996


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Translated by Carol Hoffman

 

Please note: For a number of articles, we have substituted and linked to more comprehensive articles by the Assistant Editor of “Pinkas ha-kehilot Lita”, Josef Rosin. These articles are indicated by an *

 

  Title Page
  Preface: Dov Levin XI
  List of Picture Credits XVII
  Archives names and publications with precis XVII
  Part One: Lithuania from the end of the 13th century to the end of the 20th century 1
A From the 13th century to the first division of Poland (1772) 1
B Under Russian Czarist dominance 3
C The First World War 5
D Between the Two World Wars (period of Lithuanian independence) 5
E The Second World War 7
F After the war 9
  Part Two: Lithuanian Jewry from the Middle Ages until the end of the First World War 9
G The Jewish community in Lithuania from its beginning until the union with Poland (1569) 9
H The Jews in the Polish Republic (1569-1795) 12
I Under the Russian Tzarist Rule (1795-14) - The Pale 19
J The days of the First World War (1914-1918) 36
  Part Three: The Jews in independent Lithuania between the two World Wars 39
K Their political and civil situation – from zenith to the nadir 39
L Demographics and Statistics 46
M Jews in the economy and society 49
N Education and Culture 54
O Political activity in the Jewish sector 62
  Part Four: The Second World War and the Jewish Holocaust: The Survivors 77
P Major changes at the outbreak of the war, renewal of connection with Vilna Jewry 77
Q Under Soviet rule (1940-1941) 79
R Refugees, Soldiers and exiles in the Soviet Union 82
S Under Nazi rule – destruction of Jewish Lithuania 90
T Imprisonment of surviving Jews in concentration camps 101
  General Bibliography History of Jews in Lithuania 107
 
Detailed information on about 500 Jewish communities in Lithuania 113-705
Lithuanian Name Yiddish Name Russian Name  
Abelina Abeline   116
Abelnikas Abelink   116
Akmenė Akmeyan, Okmyan   155
Akunik Akunik   155
Aleksandrobolis Aleksandrobol   144
Alkiskiai Elkishok   145
Alovė Olove   126
Alsedziai Alsyad Olsiadi 144
Alunta Alunte Ovanty 138
Alvitas Alvite   138
Alytus* Alite, Olita   140
Andriejava Andreyave   146
Antaliepte Antalept   149
Antanavas Antanove   151
Antazave Antazove   149
Antnemunis Antniemune   151
Anyksciai Anyksht   151
Ariogala Eiragole, Ragole   135
Asminta Ashminte   160
Aukstadvaris Visoki Dvor   251
Aukštoji Panemune Paniemun   496
Avanaste Avanaste   116
Ąžuolų Būda Dembove Bude, Boid   166
Azventis Ozhvints   116
Babtai Bobt   160
Backininkeliai Batshkinikl   181
Bagaslaviskis Bogoslavishok   162
Baisogala Beisegole   171
Balbieriskis Balbirishok   179
Balninkai Bolnik   167
Balsiai Balsh   181
Baltiskis Baltishishok   181
Baltmiskis Baltonishok   181
Baltusova Baltushove   181
Baranas Baran   182
Bariunai Baryun   182
Barova Barove   181
Barsenai Barshan   182
Barstyciai Barshtits   182
Bartininkai Bartinik   182
Batakiai Batok   169
Batchuska Bazhushka   181
Bazilionai Bazilyan   168
Bentzingai Bendzing   181
Berzai Brezhinsk   182
Berzgainiai Berezne   182
Berzininkai Berezovke   181
Berzole Berzole   181
Betygala Betigole   170
Birstonas Birshtan   178
Birzai* Birzh   172
Bobri Bobri   162
Boruvka Baruvke   168
Bubeliai Bubel   162
Buckunai, Butkunai Butskun   168
Budavone Budevony   163
Budvietis Budovitz   163
Buginiai Burgyan   168
Bulavenai Bulavyan   166
Bukonys Bukants   168
Bukta Bukta   168
Burbiskis Burbishok   168
Burzevitch Burzshwitz   168
Butrimonys Butrimants, Baltromants   163
Čekiškė Chaykishok, Chaykishaki Chekishky 510
Cerksbale Cherksbale   511
Ciobiskis Chobishok   508
Debeikiai Dabeik   199
Dabikine Dabikine   200
Darbenai Drobyan, Dorbyan Dorbiany 209
Darsuniškis Dabeik Dobeiki 212
Daugai Doig Daugi 202
Daugailiai Daugel   198
Daujenai Davyen   201
Dauksiskis Daukshishok   199
Deltuva Develtov   201
Devangole Devangole   201
Didkiemis Ditkeme   209
Dikshne Dikshne   209
Dilon Dilon   209
Dirviniskis Dirvinishok   209
Dotnuva Datnove   208
Dubingiai Dubinik   200
Dubininkus Dubinik   200
Dubinova Dubinove   200
Dubrava Dubrovitsi   201
Dusetos Dusyat Dusyati 204
Dvornova Dvornove   201
Dvoruka Dvoruka   199
Erzvilkas Erzhvilik, Erzhvilki   157
Freda Freda   501
Gadunavas Gudnove   187
Gargzdai Gorzd   187
Garliava Gudleve   185
Gastynai Gashtini   198
Gaure Gaure, Gavre   182
Geguzine Geguzhin   183
Geleziai Gelezh   195
Gelgaudiskis Gelgudishok Galgaudiskis 192
Gelion Geliun   195
Gelvonai Gelvan   192
Geltzin Geltzin   195
Giedraiciai Gedrevitsh, Gedrovitsh   183
Gintaliske Gintalishok   191
Girkalnis Girtegole Girtakol 191
Givyai Skrudziai     191
Graziskiai Grozishk   196
Gribkeile Gribkeile   196
Grimzdai Grimz   196
Grinkiskis Grinkishok   197
Griskabudis Grishkabud   198
Grudzuniai Grudzhun   195
Gruslauke Grosvilky Gruslauskis 196
Gruzdziai Gruzd Gruzdzi 195
Gudeliai Gudel   185
Gudiniskiai Gudinishok   185
Gudziunai Gudzhun   185
Heydkrug Heyedkrug Silute 213
Huta Hute   213
Igliauka Iglovke   134
Ilguva Ilguve   134
Imbradas Imbrad   134
Indrioniskis Indriyonishok   134
Inturke Inturik, Anturke   134
Janapole Yanapol   342
Janitz Yanitz   338
Jankai Yanke   342
Jastnik Yastanik   343
Jegliskis Yeglishok   319
Jieznas Yezne   329
Jokubaiciai Yakubents   343
Jokubavas Yakobuve   343
Jonava Yaneve Yanovo 332
Joniskelis Yonishkel Yoganishkeli 321
Joniskis (Siauliai) Yanishok Yanishki 339
Joniskis (Utena) Yanishok Yanishki 338
Josvainiai Yosven, Yosvene Yasvoina 323
Jovaravas Yavarove   319
Juzda Yuzda   319
Jukniskiai Yuknishki   324
Julinava Yavarove   320
Juodkaimis Yodkaymis   319
Juodupe Yodupe   319
Jurbarkas* Yarburg, Yurberik   324
Jurdzike Yurdezhike   329
Justinik Yustinik   324
Juzintai Yuzhint   319
Kaimelis Kaimelis   589
Kaisiadorys* Koshedar Koshedary 571
Kalinova Kalinove   597
Kaltinenai (see Kaltinėnai)* Kaltinan   596
Kalvarija Kalvaiya, Kalvariye   590
Kalyan Kalian   597
Kamajai (see Kamajai)* Kamai Komai 604
Kapciamiestis Koptsheve Koptsiovo 565
Kaplitze     565
Karklenai Karklyan   624
Kartena Kortchin   567
Katautiske Katautishok   575
Katiliske Kotlovtshizne   559
Katloverne Katloverne   575
Kaunas Kovne, Kovna Kovno 512
Kaunotavas Kaunotove   511
Kavarskas Kovarsk Kovarsk 556
Kazlu-Ruda Kazlove Rude   574
Kazokiskes Kazakishok   575
Kazyliai Kazyl   574
Kedainiai Keidan Keidani 581
Kelme (see Kelmė)* Kelm   598
Kernava Kernave, Karnove   621
Keturvalakiai Keturvalki   575
Khbodky Khavodki   295
Kiduliai     580
Kietaviskes Kutavishok   559
Kinderishky Kinderishky   590
Kirsne Kirsne   590
Klaipeda* Memel Memel 377
Klalishok Lents   598
Klebiskis Klebishok   590
Klovaniai Klovyan   590
Klykuoliai Klikol, Klikl Klokoli 597
Komyan Kamian   561
Kovli Kovly   512
Krakes Krok Kroki 613
Kraziai (see Kražiai)* Krozh Krozhi 607
Krekenava Krakinove   621
Krasne-Selke Krasne-Selke   621
Kretinga Kretinge, Kretingen   617
Kreve Kreve   607
Kriauniai, Kriaunos Krunye   612
Krincinas Krintshin   621
Kriukai (Sakiai) Krok, Kruk   615
Kriukai (Siauliai) Kruky   616
Krivlyan Krivlyan   621
Kruonis Kron Kroni 611
Kruopiai Krop   612
Kubiliunai Kubilun   511
Kuciunai Kutshun   567
Kudirkos Naumiestis* Nayshtot Shaky Vladislavov 402
Kulautuva Kalatove   595
Kulbes Kulbes   561
Kuliai Kul   559
Kupreliskis Kuperlishock   567
Kupiskis Kupishok Kupishki 561
Kurkletz Kurkletz   569
Kurkliai Kurkle Kurkly 567
Kursenai (see Kuršėnai)* Kurshan Kurshiani 569
Kurtuvenai Kurtevyan   567
Kutrtzy Kutrtzy   567
Kuktiskes, Kuktiskiai Kuktishok   567
Kuziai Kuzh, Kuzhy   559
Kvedarna Khveidan, Chveidan Kostantinovo 295
Kvetkai Kvetky   559
Kvietiskis Kvetishok   559
Kybartai* Kybart Kibarti 575
Labanoras Labanore   343
Labinava Labanove   343
Labinak Labinak   343
Laibiskes Laibushok   357
Laizuva (see Laižuva)* Laizeve   355
Lampedziai Vershves   276
Lanciunava Lents   363
Lapiai Lapy   363
Laukeliskiai Laukelishok   343
Laukuva (see Laukuva)* Loikeve   344
Laukzeme (Raseiniai) Loikzhim   346
Laukzemis (Kretinga) Loikzhem   343
Lazdena Lazdene   352
Lazdijai* Lazdey Lozdzee 349
Leckava Latskeve, Latskove   363
Leipalingis Leipun   357
Lekeciai Leketsh   364
Leliunai Lelyun   363
Lieplauke Liplavke   362
Lieponiai Lyepun   362
Liksel Liksel   362
Linkmenys Lingmyan   358
Linksmadvaris Vasiluvke   270
Linkuva Linkeve   360
Lioliai Lal   363
Liskiava Lishkeve, Liskeve   362
Liubavas Lyubave   355
Liudvinavas (see Liudvinavas)* Ludvinove Liudvenovo 344
Lotava     344
Lucinava (Marijampole) Lutzinove   346
Lucinava (Raseiniai) Lutzinove   346
Luksiai Lukshy   348
Luoke (see Luokė)* Luknik Lukniki 346
Lyduvenai Liduvyan   354
Lygumai*     352
Madziunai Madzhun   364
Malinova Malhonver Hoyif   377
Marijampole Maryampol   385
Marseky Marseiky   392
Marvele Marevyanke   385
Mauruciai Mavrutsh   365
Mazeikiai (see Mažeikiai)* Mazheik   367
Mazonai Mazan   370
Medingenai Medingyan   364
Mergalaukis Mergelupke   385
Merkine* Merech Meretch 392
Meskai Meshky   397
Meskuiciai Meshkuts   397
Meteliai     370
Mikalina Mikalina   370
Mikaliskis Michalishok   371
Mikloment Mikhelment   371
Milontza Miluntze   371
Mincia Mintz   371
Miroslavas (see Miroslavas)* Miroslav   373
Misniunenai Mishnun   374
Mizuk Mizhuk   370
Moletai (see Molėtai)* Maliat   374
Montevidove Montevidove   365
Morlishuk Morlishuk   367
Morovny-Panemun Morovny-Panemun   367
Mosedis Meisyad   371
Musninkai Musnik   371
Nacioniskis Natsyonishok   410
Nakan Nakan   410
Narikishok Narikishok   410
Naujamiestis (Karaimu Naumiestis) Nayshtot-Ponivezh   401
Naujazeris Noyazhery   398
Naujokai Noyok   398
Nedinge, Nedzinge Nedzing   397
Neknishok Neknishok   410
Nemaksciai (see Nemakščiai)* Nemoksht Nemokshti 407
Nemaniunai, Nemajunai Namyun   410
Nemunaitis Nemunaits   407
Nemunelio Radviliskis Nay-Radvilhishok   398
Nevarenai Naveran   397
Nevieriai Nevyarove   397
Niklisok Niklisok   407
Nirak Nirak   407
Nociunai Netshiny   410
Obeliai Abel Obeliai 113
Onuskis (Rokiskis) (see Onuškis)* Anishok, Anushishok   146
Onuskis (Trakai) Anushishok, Anishok   147
Pabaiskas Paboisk   447
Paberze Podberezhe   449
Pabirze Pabirze   447
Padubysis Padubyse   448
Padushrave Pabirze   448
Paezereliai Paezherel   447
Paezeriai Paezhere   447
Pagegiai Pagegen   447
Pagiriai Pogir   448
Pagramantis Pagrimants   448
Pajevonys Payevon   477
Pajuris (see Pajūris)* Payure   477
Pakalniskis Pakelnishok   500
Pakriaunis Pokriyon   501
Pakruojus Pokroy Pokroi 472
Paksena Paksene   501
Pakuonis Pakon, Pakun   500
Palacionys Palutsy   495
Palanga Polangen   491
Palevene Palevene   483
Paliuniskis Palunishok   495
Palonai Palon   495
Paluobiai Palove   483
Pamerkiai Podmeretsh, Pomerky   451
Pamuse, Pamusis Pamusis, Pamuse Lasmenpamusis 495
Pandelys Ponedel   454
Panemunelis Panemunek Ponemunok 497
Panemunis Panemun   496
Panevezys* Ponivezh Ponevezh 457
Panosiskes Panasishok   498
Panoteriai Panotery   496
Paobeliai Paobely   447
Paparciai Paportshy   500
Papile Popelyan Popeliany 470
Papilys Popil   470
Papyvesiai Papovese   500
Pasandravys Podubi   449
Pasasva     500
Pasavona Pasavon   499
Pasela Pasela   500
Pasiause Pashaush   508
Pasiaurishok Pasiaurishok   499
Pasik Pasik   499
Pasusvys     508
Pasvalys Posvol   466
Pasvitinys (see Pašvitinys)* Pashvitin   506
Paupine Paupine   447
Pavandene Povandine   448
Pelednagiai Pledenogy   482
Pociuneliai Patsinel   500
Perloja Perloy   502
Pernarava Pernarave   505
Pestininkai Pestinik   508
Pertzan Pertzan   506
Pezinte Pezinte   476
Pilviskiai* Pilvishok   478
Pilnikaly Pestinik   482
Pikeliai (see Pikeliai)* Pikeln   482
Piniava Piniyave, Pineve   482
Pivasiunai Pivashun   477
Plateliai (see Plateliai )* Plotel Plotele 484
Ploksciai Ploksciai Blogoslovensto 495
Plunge Plungyan Plungyani 484
Pokifina Pokifina   472
Porpela Porpela   475
Povaiguva Povaigeve   448
Pratkunai Pratkun   502
Pravieniskes Pravenishok   501
Preni Preny   505
Priekule Priyekule   502
Prienai* Pren   502
Primusa Primusa   502
Parupe Parupe   501
Parozhnie Parozhnie   501
Pumpenai (see Pumpėnai)* Pumpyan   451
Punia Pun   453
Pusiauskely Pusyaukel   470
Puskelniai Puskelny   470
Pusalotas Pushalot, Pushelot Pusholaty 475
Radeikiai Radeik   628
Radute Radut   628
Radviliskis Radvilishok Radsivilishki 625
Rageliai Ragole   625
Raguva Rogeve   628
Raguvele Rogovke   631
Raiterade Raiterade   640
Rakishetzik Rakishetzik   653
Ramygala Remigole   640
Ranishk Ranishk   641
Raseiniai (see Raseiniai)* Rasein   641
Raskovcizna Raskovcizna   647
Raudenai (Marijampole) Raudeni   624
Raudenai-Raudenis (Siauliai) Rauden   624
Raudondvaris Roiter Hoif   624
Raudone Raudone   624
Ribukai Ribuk, Ribok   636
Rietavas (see Rietavas)* Riteve   636
Rodzanai Rodzan   631
Rokenai Raken   653
Rokiskis Rakishok Rokishki 647
Romanova Romanove   633
Rozalimas Rozalye, Razalin Rozalin 632
Rudamina Rudamin, Rudamine   631
Rudnia Rudni   632
Rumsiskes Rumshishok   633
Rusne Rusne   636
Sabonis Saban   411
Sakalyne Shakaline   704
Sakiai* Shaky Shaki 699
Sakyna Shakine   704
Salakas (see Salakas)* Salok   427
Salantai* Salant   432
Saldutiskis Saldutishok   427
Salociai (see Saločiai)* Salat   430
Salomenka Solominke   417
Sanesiski Sinezishok Saneshiski 426
Sasnava Sosnove   417
Sateikiai Shateik, Yashteik   343
Saukenai (see Šaukėnai)* Shukyan Shavkiani 677
Saukotas Shakot Shavkuti 698
Seciai Setsh   439
Seda (see Seda)* Siad   421
Seduva (see Šeduva)* Shadeve   654
Seirijai* Serhey   444
Semeliskes Semilishok Sumelishki 435
Seredzius (see Seredžius)* Srednik   442
Sergainiskis Sergenishok   441
Serpitz Serpyaitz   447
Sestokai Shostakove   676
Sesuoliai Sheshol, Shesvil   704
Seta Shat   679
Shikly Shikly   687
Shimak Shimak   686
Shlashte Shlashte   689
Shmidhan Shmidhan   689
Shnarglin Shnarglin   689
Shtanishok Shtanishok   681
Shtarinke Shtarinke   681
Shvabeshik Shvabeshik   658
Siaudine Shaudine   653
Siaudiniskiai Shaudinishki   654
Siaudvige Shadvige   658
Siaulenai Shavlan   672
Siauliai Shavl, Shavli   658
Siesikiai Sesik, Sheshik   437
Silai Shil   683
Silale Shilel   683
Silenai Shilan, Shilen   686
Silute   Heydkrug 213
Siluva Shidleve Sidlovo 681
Simkaiciai Shimkayts   686
Simnas Simne   424
Simonys Shimants   686
Sintautai Sintovte   427
Sirvintos (see Širvintos)* Shirvint   687
Skaistgirys Skaistgir   441
Skapiskis Skopishok Skopiski 440
Skaudvile Shkudvil Skadvili 695
Skiemonys Shkumiyan, Shekumyan Skimiani 699
Skirpstauja Skirpstave   441
Skirsnemune Skirstimon   441
Skrebatiskis Skrebatishok   441
Skudutiskis Skudutishok   439
Skuodas Shkud Shkudi 690
Slavikai Slavik   427
Slovar Slovar   427
Smalininkai Smalinink   437
Smalvos Smalve   437
Smilgiai Smilg   435
Spernia Sperne   439
Stakiai Staky   420
Stakliskes* Stokishok   418
Stasiunai Stasyan   420
Strevininkai Stravenink   421
Subacius Subotsh Subotch 411
Sudargas (Sudarg)* Sudarg   413
Sujainiai Suyain   417
Sukiskis Shukishok   678
Sumskai, Sunskai Shumsk   676
Surdegis     417
Surviliskis (see Surviliškis)* Survilishok   417
Suvainiskis (see Suvainiškis)* Suveinishok   412
Svaboda Svaboda   414
Svedasai (see Svedasai)* Svadushch   414
Svobiskis Svobishok   410
Sveksna Shvekshne   673
Sventezeris Shventezheris Sviati Ozera 673
Talun Talon   305
Terpitz Terpitz   317
Tartupis Tarpun   317
Taujenai Tevyan Toviany 297
Taurage* Tavrig   298
Tauragnai (see Tauragnai)* Taragin   313
Tavrova Tavrova   298
Telsiai* Telz, Telzh Telshi 305
Teneniai Tenen   313
Timegola Timegola   304
Tirksliai Tirkshle   304
Tolkeve Tolkeve   303
Tomasheve Tomasheve   303
Traupis Treip   314
Trepkalnis Trepkalnis   317
Troskunai (see Troškūnai)* Trashkun   317
Truskava Truskave   316
Tryskiai (see Tryškiai)* Trishik   314
Tubines Tubin   297
Turiskis Turishok   304
Turmantas Turmont   304
Turzenai Turzhan   304
Tverai Tver   298
Tytuvenai (see Tytuvėnai)* Tsitevyan   508
Tzislevka Tzislevka   509
Ubila Ubile   116
Ukmerge Vilkomir Vilkomer 240
Ulinova Ulinove   126
Ungarine Ungarine   126
Upyna Upyne   126
Upyte Upyte   126
Utena* Utyan   118
Uzdubysis Uzdubysis   116
Uzpaliai (see Užpaliai)* Ushpol   128
Uzuguostis Uzhgost   116
Uzventis Uzhvent   117
Vabalninkas (see Vabalninkas)* Vabolnik Vobolniky 214
Vadokliai Vadukle   217
Vaiguva (see Vaiguva)* Vaigeve   229
Vainutas (see Vainutas)* Vainutas   231
Vaitkiskiai Vaitkishok   229
Valeisiskis Valeishishok   268
Vandziogala Vendzigole   268
Varena* Aran Orany 158
Varniai (see Varniai)* Vorne   219
Vasiliskis Vasilishok   270
Vaskai Vashky Konstantinovo 276
Vegeriai Veger   217
Veisiejai* Vishey   262
Veiveriai Veiver   230
Veivirzenai Verzhan   274
Veliuona (see Veliuona)*   Velioni 266
Vepriai Veper   270
Verpena Verpyan, Virpyan   276
Vezaiciai Vizhaits   229
Videniskiai Videnishok   226
Vidmant Vidmant   226
Vidiskiai Vidishok   225
Vidukle Vidukle   223
Viedziai Vidz   225
Vieksniai (see Viekšniai)* Vekshne Vekshnya 270
Viesintos Vishinte Vyshinty 264
Viesvenai Vishevyan   259
Vievis Vevye   217
Vikenai Viken   254
Vilkaviskis (see Vilkaviškis)* Vilkovishk Volkovishki 233
Vilkiautinis Vilkyutin   251
Vilkija Vilki   248
Virbalis* Virbaln, Verzhbelov   254
Virstinik Virstinik   259
Visakio-Ruda Visoke-Rude   251
Vistytis Vishtinets Vishtinets 260
Vyzuonos (see Vyžuonos)* Vizhun   226
Ylakiai (see Ylakiai)* Yelok   330
Zagrini Zagrini   282
Zapyskis (see Zapyškis)* Sapizishok Sapezhishki 438
Zarasai (see Zarasai)* Ezhereni   129
Zadeikiai Zhadeik   282
Zagare Zhager   277
Zalioji Zhaloy   294
Zarenai (see Žarėnai)* Zharan   294
Zasliai Zhosle   283
Zelva Podzelve Podzelva 449
Zemaiciu Kalvarija Kalvariye-Zamut   595
Zemaiciu Naumiestis (see Žemaičių Naumiestis)* Neishtot Tavrig   398
Zemaitkiemis Zhemaitkyemis   294
Zeimelis* Zheiml   291
Zeimiai Zheim   291
Zidikai (see Židikai)* Zhidik   289
Ziezmariai (see Žiežmariai)* Zhezhmer   286
Zalantz Zalantz   294
Zudz Zudz   282
Zuriai Zhury   286
Zvilun Zvilun   282
Zvingiai Zhving   282
Zvirbliniai Zhvirblants   283
Zydaviskis Zhidavishok   288
Zyedini Zyedini   289
Zydkaimis Zhidkaimis   291
Zydvaris Zhidvaris   288
Zykini Zykini   294

Review and List of Communities
See also The complete bibliography of the Works of Professor Dov Levin, 1945-2000

 


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