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[Page 588]

Glossary

(Institutions, Organizations, and Terminology)

Translated by Madeleine Isenberg

American Joint Distribution (JDC) Committee; the Joint American Jewish welfare organization to help Jews in Europe and Israel, established in 1914.
Aryanization The transference of (Jewish) factories and businesses to those loyal to the authorities.
Central Union of Jewish Communities in Slovakia (USZNO) Established in 1945
Exemption Certificate (Výnimka) A legal document distributed in 1942 to privileged or essential Jews because of their professions, that temporarily protected them from deportation.
FS (Freiwillige Schutzstaffel) Organization of volunteers from the German minority; created in 1938 and modeled after the Nazi storm troopers.
German party (Deutsche Partei) The Slovakian Pro-Nazi Party
Hlinka Guard Paramilitary fascist organization, modeled on the Nazi storm troopers; established 1938
Jeshurun An organization of traditional-liberal communities (kehilot) that comprised neolog and “status-quo” communities (established in 1928).
Jewish Central Bureau for the Region of Slovakia (ZUU) A central Jewish organization for Slovakian Jewry, established in 1938.
Jewish Central Office (Ustredna Zidov, UZ) The “Judenrat,”established in 1940.
Jewish Codex A system of anti-Jewish decrees and laws, published in September 1941
Jewish Economic Party in Slovakia (Jüdische Wirtschaftspartei in Slowakei) The political branch of the orthodox Jewry. Established in Bratislava in 1925.
Jewish National Party The electoral branch of the Jewish-National movement, established in 1919 with the aim of representing Jewish interests to the new regime.
Magyarization Enforcement of Hungarian culture upon the Slovaks and other nationalities within the Hungarian boundaries.
Oberland An area of Slovakia today (according to the Jews); The western mountainous districts of Slovakia, in Hungarian, Felvidék
Organization of Victims of Racial Persecution (SRP) Organization of Jews persecuted by the fascist regime. A Jewish organization, established in 1946, to fight against anti-Semitism and abuse of Jews, and for the restitution of their rights.
“Protection Zone” (Schutzzone) Areas in western Slovakia that during World War II were turned over to the control of the German army.
Shekel Unit of dues to the Zionist Organization; acquisition of a shekel entitled the buyer to voting rights in the elections of the Zionist Congress.
Sixth Labor Battalion Groups of slave labor conscripts to the Slovak army, among them Jews, Gypsies and non-Jewish criminals.
Slovakian People's Party (Hlinkova Slovenska, HSLS) The clerical-nationalist party, that between the two World Wars, was the largest in Slovakia
Sponsorships, Charters, Privileges Documents (letters) granting privileges or rights for Jews to settle in certain places, under the sponsorship (or protection) of the master of the settlement, in which it detailed the rights and obligations; privileges of the town or village – collective rights of Jews or individual Jews.
“Status Quo” Communities Communities, that at the time of the split, after the 1859 Budapest Congress, did not join the other two community organizations, but continued with their own traditions and leadership.
Taxa Tolerantialis A special tax imposed by Kaiserin Maria Theresa on the Jews in the 18th century (to “tolerate” their being in the country).
Union of Slovak Jews An organization that encouraged Jews to assimilate into Slovakian culture and adopt the Slovak language, established in the 1930s.
Unterland The flatlands (according to the Jews)

 

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