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[Pages 344-348]


Editor's Note:

There are no page numbers in the last section of the book, which contains articles written in various languages.
The original articles can be read online at the following website, using the Image Number listed. http://yizkor.nypl.org/index.php?id=1289

Document 1
Image 348

Compiled by M.D.

Translated by Doron Friedman

We wrote about the efforts to bring to trial Richard Dyga, commander of the camp in Jezierna, the murderer,
who killed thousands of Jews with his own hands. In this section we present letters and documents regarding that matter.

YAD VASHEM _ Remembrance Authority of Holocaust Martyrs and Heroes

19th of Kislev, 5720
Dec 20th 1959

To Mr. Mendel Duhl
82 Hagiborim St.

Dear Sir,

Under Discussion: War Criminal Richard Dyga

The prosecution in the town Waldshut, Germany contacted us with a request to assist them in finding witnesses – survivors of Jezierna Camp near Tarnopol, who can testify regarding the activities of the war criminal, commander of the camp Richard Dyga.

We have been told by our friend N. Blumenthal that you would be able to assist in the mitzvah of bringing the wicked to justice.

We would be grateful if you could provide names of people who have knowledge of the aforementioned criminal.

Dr. Y. Kermish
Director of the Archives

Document 2
Image 349

Translated from German by Shoshana Rappeport

Waldshut, the 5th of February 1960

State Prosecutor at
the District Court of
The Attorney General
Bismarckstr. 23
1 Js 8658/59

By Air Mail

Nachmann Blumenthal,
Tel Aviv /Israel
Ben Zakai St. 2

Re: Proceedings against
Richard Dyga from Königshütte,
for multiple murders.

Dear Mr. Blumenthal,

I have received notification from Magistrate Naumann, the investigative judge at the Giessen district court, that you may be able to give information as a witness in an investigation currently proceeding here.

I am conducting an investigation against the former camp commander of the forced–labor camp Jezierna in the Tarnopol district, Richard Dyga, who comes from upper Silesia.

If you have any knowledge or are in possession of any documentation I would be grateful if you would communicate this information. Should witnesses be known to you I request notification concerning the possible addresses.

Dr. Angelberger

Document 3
Image 350–351

Translated from German by Shoshana Rappeport


To the
State Prosecutor
at the Waldshut District Court
Attorney General
to Dr. Angelberger
Bismarckstr. 23
Waldshut, Germany

Dear Dr. Angelberger,

We hereby confirm the receipt of your esteemed letter dated 2.12.1959, file number 1 Js 8658/59, regarding Richard DYGA, former director of the central work camp Jezierna in the Tarnopol district.

Due to our connections we were able to locate the addresses of the following witnesses to the crimes of the above named:

  1. Mendel Dol
    Hagiborim Str. 82
    Haifa, Israel
  2. Anna Dol
    Hagiborim Str. 82
    Haifa, Israel
  3. Henia Heliczer c/o Mgr. Zelig Anderman
    Afridar, Pharmacy
    Aschkelon, Israel
  4. Zila Zaimer, nee Heliczer
    address can be obtained from her sister Henia (No. 3)
  5. Engineer I. Steinberg
    5116 Hamilton St.
    O'ky, Brooklyn 19,
    New–York, USA
  6. Max Richman
    184 College Str.
    Toronto, Canada
Furthermore it is known to us that the witness Pepi Scharer and her two daughters are located in Australia; their addresses we will ascertain in the near future, together with those of the important witnesses Zainer (a judge by occupation) and Michal Rajski (Engel), who both live in Poland. Mr. Rajski is presently visiting Israel and we hope to be able to contact him.

In our archive there is a short description of living conditions in the ZAL [central–labor–camp] – Jezierna and about the murder of thousands of Jews during the period of its existence. This was written in Polish by Dr. Liblich for the Stuttgart branch of the Jewish Historical Commission in Munich, which functioned in 1946–48.

In the memorial book “Czortkow”, published by Kohen Israel, Tel Aviv, 1956, the war–criminal Richard DYGA is named, in the memories of Mendel Dol (see No. 1)

Testimony is accepted by the Central Court of Justice in Jerusalem via the Israeli Mission in Cologne or by direct contact with the Central Court of Justice in Israel, Jerusalem, Russian Compound. Regarding your willingness to send us additional documentation, this is desirable for furthering the matter; accordingly, we would also like a photograph of DYGA. We will immediately send you further documentation should such reach us. For this purpose it would be necessary for you to keep us informed about the developments of the investigation.

Copy: Mr. Attorney General Schüle With great respect,
Dr. J. Kermisz
Director of Archives

Document 4
Image 352

Translated from German by Shoshana Rappeport and Ayelet Ophir

Jerusalem, 14.2.1960

To the
State Prosecutor
at the Waldshut District Court
to Dr. Angelberger
Attorney General
Registered Post

Bismarckstr. 23

Dear Dr. Angelberger,

Regarding: War criminal Richard DYGA

We confirm with thanks the receipt of your valued letter of 27.1.1960 with the enclosed photographs of war criminal Richard DYGA. We also thank you for the information about the confrontation of DYGAS by Mr. Simon Wiesenthal, engineer.

We are endeavoring to find further incriminating evidence against DYGA and will forward such to you without delay.

With regard to witnesses who presently live in Poland whose addresses we gave you in our letter of 24.1.1960, we would like to add that it is possible to make contact either directly or through the Jewish Historical Institute, A1. Gen. Swierczewskiego 79 Warszawa/Poland.

Simon Wiesenthal, Eng.

M. Dol

Dr. J. Kermisz
Archive Director

Document 5
Image 353

Translated from German by Shoshana Rappeport

Jerusalem, the 25th of March 1960

To the
State Prosecutor

at the Waldshut District Court
to Attorney General
Dr. Angelberger
Bismarckstrasse 23.
Waldshut, Germany

Regarding: War Criminal Richard DYGA

Dear Dr. Angelberger,

In continuation of our letters from 3.1.1960 and 14.2.1960 we would like to inform you that besides the persons named in those letters we have been able to locate the following witnesses:

  1. Frida Herszfeld
    9, Huntley Rd.
    Melbourne, Australia
  2. Pepi Scharer
    c/o Herzfeld
    as above
  3. Bronia Feuer– Toraki
    c/o Herszfeld
    as above
  4. Mrs. Doris Ozover O'Farril
    630 dtos. Vibra
    Havana, Cuba
  5. In regard to the last witness named, we would like to mention that DYGA murdered her father.

Dr. J. Kermisz
Archive Director
Copy: Attorney General Schüle
Central Office of the State Judicial Administration
Schorndorfer Str. 28, Ludwigsburg/Germany

Mr. Simon Wiesenthal, Engineer
Raimundstrasse 39/III
L i n z, Austria

Document 6
Image 354

Translated from Polish by Professor Tomasz Rutkowski


Concentration camp (lager) in Jezierna was created in February 1942 solely as a labor camp (arbeitslager) for male–Jews, which was later converted to an extermination camp (vernichtungslager). Initially, a labor office (arbeitsamt) sent prisoners and then the Gestapo.

A type of work – building roads. Working and living conditions were unbearable. The camp was guarded by Ukrainian police posts – surrounded by a high fence with barbed wire. The sanitation – below any criticism. Long time there was no infirmary and sick people were lying together on a single bunk with healthy, and even after death they lay for a few days. High mortality from typhus. Often they died from exhaustion and the blows they received from the executioners.

Local people, Ukrainian, helped camp executioners. And [they died from] cases of denunciation, accidents, because of elimination from the concentration camp, which were on the daily agenda. Often there happened also murders of Jews, asking for a piece of bread, which were committed by peasants from the same village. When someone of the prisoners (lagerinsas) managed to escape, they would hang in public ten innocents, to terrorize.

For minor offenses [prisoners] were shot, beaten and often hanged publicly. In the concentration camp they killed about 20 thousand Jews either from starvation, disease and execution.

lania.– [slaughtered like deer]

The concentration camp was burned down in August of year 1943.

  / Dr. Liblich /
Histor. Kommiss.
/ J. Eiger /

Document 7
Image 355

Translated from Yiddish / Hebrew by Sari and Daniel Avis

Devora Lempert was invited to submit testimony in the trial against war criminal Richard DYGA

By Air Mail

Judicial Authorities

Mrs. Dwora Lempert

State Prosecutor
at the District Court of
Tel. 336, 337, 673
Nordaustr. 18
Nes – Cyjona / Israel

Hannah Reichman, born Katz, now in Toronto
26. 1.1960

Dear Mr Duhl,

We received your letter and read it with sadness. The murderer, who killed our loved ones, is still alive!

17 years have already passed and this terrible murderer is still walking free in the world. What kind of a world is this?

You write to me about giving testimony. Of course I will testify. I will remember everything he did. Write to me as to where I should go. We will publish it here in the newspapers. Maybe here in Canada there is someone else who was in the Jezierna camp. There were Jews there from many cities and towns.

I remember how the murderer Dyga, the camp chief, beat and killed Jews in the street.

We wish you and your family well,

Hannah and Max Reichmann

Document 8
Image 356

Translated from Polish by Dorota Poteralska

Isadore Steinberg, engineer, who spent approximately 5 months in the Jezierna camp and survived, gave testimony at the German Embassy in the USA

I. Steinberg
5116 Ft. Hamilton Pkwy.
Brooklyn 19, N.Y.

Mr. Maximilian Dul

Brooklyn, 18 /XI / 1960

Dear Mr Dul !

I took care of the Dyga matter immediately after receiving your letter, in which you informed me about Dyga being arrested.

At the same time my lawyer got to know about it and took care of the case personally, which he knew well from my testimony in the Wiedergutmachtung [reparations] case. I know that, being a man of law, he knew how to present it well.

A few weeks ago I received a letter of summons from the German embassy for 22 November, to give my testimony in the case. The fore–mentioned lawyer offered to accompany me to the embassy.

When am there I will certainly say that in addition to shooting and tying up Jewish people, he let them freeze, leaving them outside in the winter naked. One of them was the father–in–law of the pharmacist from Jezierna.

[Pages 349-352]

Dozia Blaustein Testimony

My name is Dozia Blaustein and I am one of the few survivors from my hometown, Jezierna.

I am the daughter of Ben-Zion Blaustein and Rosa Lechowitz. The names Blaustein-Lechowitz were well known in Jezierna, therefore there is no need for further explanation. We were two children, an older brother, Moishe, named Munio, and myself.

Before the days of the second war, Jezierna had a beautiful and intellectual Jewish community, in which my parents as well as my brother played a great part.

With the outbreak of the second war, and the Nazi occupation, the Jews of Jezierna shared the destiny of the other Jews of Poland. On a rainy Friday, a few days after the occupation, the Nazis did what they called “Aine-Accie” and a great percentage of the male population were shot and buried, half dead and half alive, at the outskirts of the town. In that particular massacre my father and brother survived. Since that day life became a constant fear, and survival a struggle.

Shortly after the massacre, the Nazis ordered the formation of a Judenrat (a Jewish committee, composed mostly of Jews). Their first law was that every Jew must wear a ten inch wide arm-band with a blue Star of David, and on our windows there had to be posted a ten inch Star.

We all had to do forced labor, and as young as I was I was assigned to the fields to cut the crops. Shortly after, the Nazis formed the first labor camp in Jezierna and the first to be thrown into the camp were the male youth, among them my brother Munio. At the time of the founding of the camp in Jezierna, the remaining Jewish families from Jezierna and the other neighboring towns were sent to a ghetto in the city of Zborow. Unfortunately, Munio never passed the barbed wire, except when working and in July of 1943 the camp was “liquidated”. Among those few hundred Jews my brother Munio, age 20, met his death.

Life in the ghetto and the living conditions are well known to all of us today. My parents and I shared a three room apartment with four more families. From day to day hunger became more acute and the sanitary conditions worsened. This led to an outbreak of typhoid. People were dying daily by the dozen, but G-d was good to us and we escaped the epidemic. Once in a while the people of the ghetto had to pay a contribution toward The Party. In a short time all of the gold, silver, furs, and any valuables were collected and given to the Nazis.

While in the ghetto we were all assigned to forced labor. Some of us went to build roads, others to factories, and still others went to sew clothing for the Nazi soldiers. I was assigned, with another group of girls, to do the laundry and work in the gardens of the Gestapo Headquarters. A pass was issued to us and every morning we used to leave the ghetto for work and return at night. The work wasn't hard, but we were slapped without reason--but for being a Jew. The worst punishment we received from the Nazi officers was their harsh and sadistic statements about the Jews. Often they would give us their camouflage raincoats to be washed; these raincoats were splattered with blood and they reminded us that this was the blood from other Jews of other ghettos and this was what awaited us – the Jews of the Ghetto of Zborow.

Outside the Ghetto of Zborow a forced labor camp was created. In the early spring of 1943 my father was taken into the camp. My mother and I remained inside the Ghetto. I kept on working at the S.S. Headquarters.

Food was getting scarce. Some Gentile people, with heart, used to smuggle some food into the Ghetto. Between those bringing in food, there was a young man from my hometown by the name of Kola Leskof. His father was a good friend of my father and during one of his trips, Mother asked Kola if he could hide us. Without giving it a thought Kola agreed. It was hard to believe that without one word said or thought, this young man should sacrifice himself to hide two Jewish women, but we had nothing to lose; by staying in the Ghetto we knew what was coming, and by leaving we had a chance to survive.

At the end of April of 1943, with the help of a Gentile family from Zborow, we escaped. We were quite lucky, for we made it to Jezierna to the house of the Leskof family. As Kola had promised, they accepted us and made shelter for us in the attic. For a Gentile family to keep Jews the punishment was death. The Leskof family shared with us every piece of bread they had.

In May of 1943, the Zborow Ghetto was “liquidated” and in July of 1943 the Camp of Zborow, where my father was kept, met the same fate. The day my father and brother died Kola came to the attic to see us. His grief was profound and I remember, as if it were yesterday, his telling Mother, “Even if I have to give my life, I shall protect you and shelter you”. I shall never forget Kola and his smiling face, for he too met his maker a year later.

We stayed at the Leskof home throughout the winter, until March of 1944. At that time the Russians were advancing and the battlefields were at the outskirts of Jezierna. The Leskof's house was burned by the Germans, for the simple reason that it obstructed the view of the battlefield. We had nowhere to go but into the woods. We wandered from place to place and it seemed that G-d was guiding us out of trouble.

In July of 1944 we were liberated by the Russians. After a short time in Jezierna we moved to Tornopol, where we lived with a few Jewish families.

In 1945, after the worst was over, we were allowed to leave the Ukraine and go to Poland. We settled in Byton and waited for a pass to leave for America, where my mother has brothers and a sister. Unfortunately, my mother's health was deteriorating and as soon as she was confined to bed, in 1946, her brother, Moris Lechowitz, came from Russia and joined us in Byton, for he was alone, as his wife, Netka, and three children lost their lives in a concentration camp in Poland. Together with Mother, in a stretcher, we left Poland to go to Paris. After a few months in Paris, Mother died.

On January of 1947 my uncle Moris and I left France for the United States. Behind I left only graves and bad memories, but I had to forget all this, for I was going ahead to an unknown country in search of happiness and a better tomorrow.


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