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Haute and Evansville, Indiana and in Mt. Carmel, Illinois; Vincennes was located in between these areas. A second factor influencing the move to Vincennes was protection and safety. Minority groups of color or religion found it best to band togethei—whether it was the slums of New York or a small community such as Vincennes. Here they could become tailors, merchants, or grocers, and worship and live in freedom.

Bill Dumes came here to be an American not to live as a Jew, and he felt in his early life the two should not mix. He had suffered so much that he thought being just an American would prevent further suffering. He was a first generation American Jew.

By contrast, Stan's mother was a second generation Jew from Cincinnati, and a real difference existed between the attitudes of the mother and father. Cincinnati was a lot like New York because most of the Jews worked in the garment industry in the "sweat shops," but there being a Jew was important.

Phyllis Dumes reported that her parents, too, came from Europe, and they brought with them the many European customs and traditions, which were passed on to her. Her family lived at Robinson, Illinois, which is located approximately 40 miles from Vincennes.

Mr. Rosenberg's ancestors were from Poland. He never knew his grandparents, but he stated he remembered his Dad sending money and clothing to them until 1939. After that time, his paternal grandparents were never heard from again, and it was assumed they were killed by the Nazis. His maternal grand-